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  • Author: Robert Tomusiak x
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The study makes an attempt to evaluate the effect of resin-tapping on the radial increment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Increment cores were taken from two groups of trees: resin-tapped trees and normal trees growing in a 148-year-old pine stand in the Lidzbark Forest District. The cores were taken with the Pressler increment borer from two heights on the tree trunk: 1,30 m and 3,30 m. Using dendrochronological methods, real chronologies were built for each of the four analysed groups of cores. The value and variability of increments for each group were investigated in 20 and 40 year time periods, before and after the start of resin-tapping. In next step, the chronologies were compared and their coefficients of conformity were calculated. As a result, we can state that the radial increments were larger are at 1,3 m height after resin-tapping than before resin-tapping. There was also significant effect of resin-tapping on radial growth at the height 3,3 m, above the resin-tapping face.


In Poland, according to the law (amendment of the act of 21st May 2010) – on the provision of information on the environment and its protection, public participation in environmental protection and environmental impact assessments etc. (Official Law Journal article 08.199.1227, as amended) – the owner can cut down trees without permission, if they do not exceed the age of 10 years old. However, if an owner happens to cuts down a tree on his property without knowing the age of the tree, he is liable to prosecution under this act.

The aim of this study is to verify whether there is a possibility to calculate the actual age of silver birch trees growing on farmer agricultural lands using features that enable age of standing trees to be identified. Using these criteria, owners would be able to calculate the age of trees on their own.

The research used 183 sample trees located on three research plots. For each tree, the dbh, height and prepared samples of wood from the trees base were used to give the age of the tree. The relationship between age and dbh, as well as between the age and the height was examined. The strength of correlation was compared and the strongest was used in the proposed model. Using these correlations two types of charts were constructed to estimate the age of young birches on the basis of dbh and height.


The article presents the results of a questionnaire survey aimed at determining social preferences in relation to running as a form of active leisure time in forests. These preferences were established on the basis of surveys conducted via the Internet by means of social media services. The survey was carried out in 2016 and covered 346 people living in Poland, interested in running and jogging. It involved people over 18 years of age. As a research tool, an Internet questionnaire was used, which included questions concerning the attractiveness of the forest for practicing running, the frequency of running events in the forest, and factors motivating to take part in the running event. Statistical analysis was performed considering the influence of personal characteristics (gender, age, place of residence) and experience in running on the preferences of respondents with the use of the chi-square test. Men dominated among the respondents. The majority of respondents were people aged 35–44 living in towns. Over half of the respondents declared that they practiced athletic or recreational running for more than 4 years. The results show that the Polish forests are an attractive place for running. The preferences varied significantly, mainly in relation to gender, age, and experience in running. Age differentiated the views of respondents on the attractiveness of the forest as a place for running. Participating in forest running events was determined by gender, place of residence, and experience in running. Participants of such events are more frequently men, residing in towns. It was observed that the frequency of participation in running events increases with experience. The attractiveness of the running event was associated mainly with its general atmosphere and the characteristics of the running trail. However, the views were diversified according to gender, age, residence, and experience in running.