Recovery of bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether from aqueous solution onto activated carbon
The results of the studies of bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether adsorption from aqueous solution onto AG5 activated carbon were presented here. Dynamic adsorptivity, mass transfer zone and the velocity of the adsorption front of the 10cm adsorption bed depth for the velocity of flow 9 and 25 cm/min were determined. For the regeneration of the adsorption bed, acetone rinsing was used. Total washout of adsorbed bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether from the bed was obtained. After the regeneration the adsorbent has not shown deterioration of adsorption properties. To isolate bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether from acetone, distillation was used.
Mass transfer in the bath reactor of the adsorption process of 1,2-dichloropropane from aqueous solution onto the activated carbon
A pseudo-second order rate equation describing the kinetics of the adsorption of 1,2-dichloropropane from aqueous solution onto the activated carbon at different initial concentrations, adsorbent dose, temperature, particle diameter and the rate of stirring have been developed. The rate constant was calculated. The rate constant correlation in a good mixing conditions was described as a function of the temperature.
Adsorption of 1,2-dichloropropane from aqueous solution
In this study dependences of the adsorption equilibrium of 1,2-dichloropropane in aqueous solution for six activated carbons (A, AG, AG5, DTO, WD-ekstra, CWZ-22) and four polymeric adsorbents (XE-563, XE-572, XE-340, XE-348) were presented. All the adsorption isotherms onto activated carbons were described by the Freundlich equation. To analyze the isotherms on the polymeric adsorbents the Langmuir-Freundlich equation was used. It was found that in the low range of the concentrations the adsorptive properties of the activated carbons are reduced in the following direction DTO>WD-ekstra>CWZ-22>AG>A>AG5. Reducing the adsorptive properties of the polymeric adsorbents states was carried out in the following order: XE-340> XE-572>XE-563>XE-348. The adsorbents XE-340, XE-572 and XE-563 have much more higher adsorptive properties than the applied activated carbons. Lower adsorptive properties of XE-348 are the result of its high surface polarity.
Thermal degradation of poly(alkyl methacrylates) and polyurethane pressure-sensitive adhesives
Gas chromatography, coupled with the temperature controlled pyrolysis technique, can be used as a quick method of identification of polymers such as acrylates, methacrylates and polyurethanes. Polymers based on alkyl methacrylates are widely used as construction materials and coatings. Polyurethanes are widely used as self-adhesives, sealants and electrical products (due to polyurethane's low glass transition temperature Tg). The aim of this work is to investigate which products can be obtained from polymethacrylates and polyurethanes.
Thermal decomposition of acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives
The general aim of this article is to review the state of knowledge on pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) and pyrolysis. Recent research data in the field of pyrolysis gas- chromatography (Py-GC) analysis of acrylic PSAs are presented. First, PSA characteristics and applications, pyrolysis (including Py-GC) as an analytical method, and system solutions, are described. The latest scientific achievements in the analysis of thermal degradation products of acrylic PSAs are then presented.
Jerzy Myszkowski, Eugeniusz Milchert, Marcin Bartkowiak and Robert Pełech
Utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds
Efficient methods of utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds coming from waste water and the waste streams formed e.g. in the production of vinyl chloride by dichloroethane method and in the production of propylene oxide by chlorohydrin method have been presented. First the separation of chloroorganic wastes by the adsorption methods has been described in the article. Three valuable methods of chlorocompounds utilization have been then discussed. The first one is isomerization of 1,1,2-trichloroethane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane as the valuable product with less toxicity than a substrate. The second method is ammonolysis of waste 1,2-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The third described method is chlorolysis. This method can be used for the utilization of all types of waste chloroorganics.
Jerzy Myszkowski, Eugeniusz Milchert, Waldemar Paździoch and Robert Pełech
Formation of environmentally friendly chloroorganic compounds technology by sewage and by-products utilization
The processes presented in the study enables the separation and disposal of the chloroorganic compounds as by-products from the vinyl chloride plant by using the dichlorethane method and also from the production of propylene oxide by the chlorohydrine method. The integrated purification method of steam stripping and adsorption onto activated carbon allows a complete removal and recovery of the chloroorganic compounds from waste water. Waste distillation fraction is formed during the production of vinyl chloride. 1,1,2-trichloroethane separated from the above fraction, can be processed to vinylidene chloride and further to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 2,3-Dichloropropene, 2-chloroallyl alcohol, 2-chloroallylamine, 2-chlorothioallyl alcohol or bis(2-chloroallylamine) can be obtained from 1,2,3-trichloropropane. In the propylene oxide plant the waste 1,2-dichloropropane is formed, which can be ammonolysed to 1,2-diaminopropane or used for the production of β-methyltaurine. Other chloroorganic compounds are subjected to chlorinolysis which results in the following compounds: perchloroethylene, tetrachloromethane, hexachloroethane, haxachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene. The substitution of the milk of lime by the soda lye solution during the saponification of chlorohydrine eliminates the formation of the CaCl2 waste.
Zbigniew Czech, Robert Pełech, Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Arkadiusz Kowalski and Rafał Wróbel
Electrically conductive acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives containing carbon black
Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA) are non electrical conductive materials. The electrical conductivity is incorporated into acrylic self-adhesive polymer after adding electrically conductive additives like carbon black, especially nano carbon black. After an addition of electrical conductive carbon black, the main and typical properties of pressure-sensitive adhesives such as tack, peel adhesion and shear strength, are deteriorated. The investigations reveals that the acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives basis must be synthesised with ameliorated initial performances, like high tack, excellent adhesion and very good cohesion. Currently, the electrical conductive solvent-borne acrylic PSA containing carbon black are not commercially available on the market. They are promising materials which can be applied for the manufacturing of diverse technical high performance self-adhesive products, such as broadest line of special electrically conductive sensitive tapes.