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Open access

Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Marcin Michałek, Karolina Kapturska, Alicja Cepiel, Adrian Janiszewski, Robert Pasławski, Piotr Skrzypczak and Urszula Pasławska


Introduction: Pacemaker implantation is the only effective symptomatic treatment for life-threatening bradyarrhythmias. Major complications observed after implantation of cardiac pacemakers include lead dislocation, loss of pulse generator function, and inadequate stimulation. The aim of this retrospective single-centre study was to analyse the indications for pacemaker implantation and the incidence and types of complications associated with this procedure in dogs treated for symptomatic bradyarrhythmia.

Material and Methods: The retrospective analysis included 31 dogs with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia, implanted with permanent cardiac pacemakers in 1992–2017. The list of analysed variables included patient age, breed, sex, indication for pacemaker implantation, comorbidities, and the incidence of procedure-related complications along with the type thereof.

Results: The most common indication for pacemaker implantation was 3rd degree AVB, followed by SSS, advanced 2nd degree AVB, and PAS. Pacemaker implantation was associated with a 35% overall complication rate and 6.45% periprocedural mortality. There were no significant differences in terms of procedure-related complications with regard to age, sex, breed, indications for pacemaker implantation, or comorbidities.

Conclusions: Cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment of symptomatic bradycardia, but as an invasive procedure, may pose a risk of various complications, including death.

Open access

Piotr Skrzypczak, Dorota Zyśko, Urszula Pasławska, Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Adrian Janiszewski, Liliana Kiczak, Jacek Bania, Maciej Zacharski, Alicja Tomaszek, Ilona Rybińska, Józef Nicpoń, Robert Pasławski, Jacek Gajek, Ewa A. Jankowska and Piotr Ponikowski


The aim of the study was to assess the atrioventricular conduction in the model of porcine pacing induced tachycardiomyopathy. Fifty-one swine were examined: 27 were paced and 24 served as a control group. Every 4 weeks, the animals were anaesthetised for 1 h and an ECG Holter was performed. Thirty minutes after the onset of anaesthesia, P-R and R-R intervals were measured. Each result was assigned to the subgroup according to the animal’s weight and the presence or absence of previous pacing. P-R interval was longer in animals after at least 4 weeks of rapid ventricular stimulation than in adjusted group of the animals according to the body mass. Multivariate analysis has showed that longer P-R interval was related to male gender, higher body mass, slower heart rate, and history of previous pacing. Chronic ventricular pacing led to the slowing of atrioventricular conduction. The presence of differences in the duration of R-R intervals between groups was only found in swine weighing 120-139 kg. The R-R interval was shorter in paced animals, whereas PR interval was longer in that group, indicating that PR prolongation is related to electrical or structural remodelling of the cardiac conductive tissue but not increased sympathetic nervous system activity, which is expected to produce corresponding changes in PR and R-R intervals.