Molecular mechanisms of biological adaptation to training in professional soccer players are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of progressive physical effort on peripheral T-cells and their molecular response.
Thirteen soccer players form Pogo Szczecin S.A., a top league soccer club, (median age 21, range 18– 31, years old) performed progressive efficiency tests on a mechanical treadmill until exhaustion at the start (period 1) and the end (period 2) of a competition round. Venous blood T-lymphocyte subsets, selected hallmarks of cell death and plasma cytokine levels were determined by flow cytometry three times: pre-exercise, post-exercise, and in recovery.
Although significant changes in T, Tc and Tc-naïve cell percentages were found in both periods, Th-naïve cell percentages were altered only in period 1. Post-exercise IL-10 plasma levels were higher than pre-exercise, while an increase in TNF-α levels was noticed in recovery from both periods. An increase in recovery IL-12p70 levels was observed in the second period. Increases in the percentage of T-cells with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials, elevated levels of phosphorylated H2AX histones and increases in early apoptotic T-cells were also observed.
The immune system in soccer players creates space for naïve CD3+CD8+ cells by inducing mechanisms of cell death. It seems that the cumulative effect of physical activity during a competition round induced an adaptive mechanism, since the cell death process was induced faster during period 2.
Immunological alterations may led to the reduction in capacity and endurance levels in elite athletes by e.g. increased susceptibility to infections. There is a need to explain the impact of intensive physical effort on the CD4+ memory T cell subsets.
Fourteen participants median aged 19 years old (range 17–21 years) were recruited form Pogoń Szczecin S.A., soccer club. They performed progressive efficiency test on mechanical treadmill until exhaustion twice: during preparatory phases to spring and autumn competition rounds. We examined the influence of exhaustive effort on the selected CD45+, especially CD4+ memory T cell subsets and inflammation markers determined before, just after the test and during recovery time.
Significant changes in total CD45+ cells and decrease in T lymphocytes percentage after the run was observed. Significant fluctuations in T cells’ distribution were related not only to the changes in Th or Tc subsets but also to increase in naïve T cell percentage during recovery. Increase in TNF-α and IL-8 post-exercise, IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels in recovery was also found.
The novel finding of our study is that the run performed on mechanical treadmill caused a significant release of CD4+ T naïve cells into circulation. Post-exercise increase in circulating NK cells is related with fast biological response to maximal effort. However, at the same time an alternative mechanism enhancing inflammation is involved.
During karate fight muscles work at a very high intensity, and their contractions are extremely strong. The movement pattern contains a great number of feints, dodges, frequent changes in movements’ tempo and direction, hits and kicks, all of which is highly stressful for athlete’s organism, including the immune system.
T lymphocyte subsets’ distribution and selected cytokines in peripheral blood of three elite karate athletes aged 30 years old (range 21–31 years) with minimum 15 years of training experience were analysed in two experiments: at the beginning of the preparatory phase (a progressive test until exhaustion; an analysis of immune system’s selected parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness measures, including VO2max, VE, AT, MVV, MET, Rf), and during the start-up period (Karate Championships; an analysis of selected parameters of the immune system).
Maximal effort caused an increase in total lymphocyte percentage (p<0.05). A decrease in Th cells in recovery (p<0.05 compared to post-exercise), and an increase in Th naïve cells in recovery (p<0.05) were observed. A significant increase in CD8+ central memory cells (p<0.05) was found only after the progressive test, and no changes in both central and effector memory subsets of CD4+ cells during the first experiment. An increase (p<0.05) in Treg and Th1 and a decrease (p<0.05) in Th2 cells’ distribution during recovery time were found. Additionally, changes (p<0.05) in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70 were observed.
Post-effort disorder in immune balance activated compensation pathways involving CD4+ cells. Treg and Th1 cells seem to be subsets of key importance involved in the anabolic effect of physical effort, at least among karate athletes.
There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.
The diet of wolves Canis lupus L. was assessed in the Wigry National Park in North-Eastern Poland, which overlaps with the Natura 2000 site “Ostoja Wigierska”. The content of a total of 149 scat samples was collected in 2017 and analysed in order to determine dietary composition. Wolves primarily feed on wild ungulates, which make up 75.4% of food biomass. Despite the fact that wild boar Sus scrofa L. and red deer Cervus elaphus L. dominate in the ungulate community in the study area, the primary prey species was observed to be roe deer Capreolus capreolus L. with 39.6%, while red deer and wild boar only constituted 18.7% and 8.3% of the food biomass, respectively. Additionally, beaver Castor fiber L. was found to be an important prey (10.9%) as well and livestock accounted for 15.1% of all biomass consumed. The livestock eaten by wolves also included carcasses of domestic animals illegally disposed of in the forest. We therefore conclude that decisions on the management of the wolf’s food base within protected areas, such as national parks or Natura 2000 sites, should be preceded by intensive local studies.
Background: Long-term and intensive physical effort causes metabolic and biochemical adaptations for both athletic and non-athletic objectives. Knowing the importance of aerobic training in football players, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the activity of: creatinine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ahydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), cholinesterase (ChE) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in response to a semi-long distance outdoor run under aerobic conditions among both female and male football players.
Methods: Sixteen participants aged 21.9±2 years (women) and 18.4±0.5 years (men), all of them voluntarily recruited football players, took part in an outdoor run, the women covering a distance of 7.4±0.3 km while men covered a distance of 10.7±1.0 km. Plasma activities of the studied enzymes were determined using an appropriate diagnostic assay kit.
Results: Our results indicate that total LDH activity could be a useful tool in evaluating physical fitness among athletes. We simultaneously established that ChE could not be a marker useful in assessing metabolic response to physical effort in athletes. Moreover, our results suggest that post-effort changes in ALP activity might be used to estimate early symptoms of certain vitamin deficiencies in an athlete’s diet.
Conclusions: We confirmed that the assessment of activity of selected traditional diagnostic enzymatic markers provides information about muscle state after physical effort.
In veterinary medicine, sensitive and specific markers of the early stages of renal failure still remain to be established. Podocytes could be a promising diagnostic tool in veterinary nephrology, especially in the differentiation of active pathological disease and glomerulopathies. Podocin is one of the robust proteins exploitable in detection of podocyturia. This article presents podocyte detection in urine for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine using a variety of methods. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of the immunohistochemical technique currently used, and of scanning microscopy, chromatography, and immunostaining. The identification of podocin-positive cells is a promising diagnostic tool in the detection of the early stages of glomerular basement membrane damage. The detection of renal failure prior to the occurrence of azotaemia is of high clinical importance from the clinical and scientific points of view.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the limitation of energy intake by restrictive dry matter intake in the faroff part (from -56 d to -22 d) of dry period on the colostrum quality and the calf immunological status. Thirty-eight Polish Holstein- Friesian Black and White multiparous cows and their calves were randomly allotted to one of the two dietary treatments in the far-off period. In group ADLIB, diet was offered ad libitum (2.0% body weight), while in group REST, dry matter intake was restricted to 1.5% of body weight. Lowered feed intake in the far-off period did not have a statistically significant influence on the quality of colostrum. On the 3rd d of calves’ life, serum concentrations of immunoglobulins, albumins, globulins, total protein, and IGF-1 were not affected by treatments of dam in the far-off period. The concentrations of total Ig and G and A immunoglobulins of 21-day-old calves from cows fed ad libitum during the far-off period was found to be significantly lower compared to REST group. No significant differences in birth weight and growth rate during the first 21 d of life were found. Limiting maternal diet in far-off period did not affect negatively colostrum quality and calves` immune response during early stages of their life.
Small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus is one of the most dangerous pests of Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets. The lack of effective and environmentally safe methods of limiting the number of the pest justified to undertake the studies aimed at the laboratory and field evaluation of biological activity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana used to reduce the numbers of small banded pine weevil.
In laboratory, the beetles were reared on the sections of fresh Scots pine twigs that were treated with five suspensions containing from 1 × 104 to 1 × 108 conidia of B. bassiana in 1 ml. During the 3-week rearing, insect mortality was determined and median lethal concentration LC50 was calculated. The field treatments consisted of spraying 4-year-old P. sylvestris trees with two formulations of fungus containing 1 × 108 conidia ml−1 of suspension. Treatments consisted of spraying 4-year-old P. sylvestris trees with two fungus formulations containing 1 × 108 conidia ml−1.
High insecticidal activity of B. bassiana was found because the pathogen caused the death of 14-94% of P. castaneus beetles, LC50 = 6.51 × 105 conidia ml−1. Field treatments did not result in the reduction of plant damage caused by small banded pine weevil; therefore, the spraying of trees with B. bassiana cannot be recommended to protect the young stands of P. sylvestris against pest.
Introduction: Pacemaker implantation is the only effective symptomatic treatment for life-threatening bradyarrhythmias. Major complications observed after implantation of cardiac pacemakers include lead dislocation, loss of pulse generator function, and inadequate stimulation. The aim of this retrospective single-centre study was to analyse the indications for pacemaker implantation and the incidence and types of complications associated with this procedure in dogs treated for symptomatic bradyarrhythmia.
Material and Methods: The retrospective analysis included 31 dogs with symptomatic bradyarrhythmia, implanted with permanent cardiac pacemakers in 1992–2017. The list of analysed variables included patient age, breed, sex, indication for pacemaker implantation, comorbidities, and the incidence of procedure-related complications along with the type thereof.
Results: The most common indication for pacemaker implantation was 3rd degree AVB, followed by SSS, advanced 2nd degree AVB, and PAS. Pacemaker implantation was associated with a 35% overall complication rate and 6.45% periprocedural mortality. There were no significant differences in terms of procedure-related complications with regard to age, sex, breed, indications for pacemaker implantation, or comorbidities.
Conclusions: Cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment of symptomatic bradycardia, but as an invasive procedure, may pose a risk of various complications, including death.