The aim of this paper is to verify whether step aerobics training (SAT) has an impact on the temperature of deep muscles of the spine of young, healthy subjects and if there exists a relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and thermal results. The study was conducted in a group of 21 subjects of both sexes, aged 20.2 ± 0.38. The step aerobics training sessions lasted 30 weeks, one training session per week, 60 minutes per session. Thermograms of the spine were taken with the use of an infrared thermographic camera. Instrumental measurements included BMI, vital capacity of the lungs, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). After a 30-weeklong SAT, a statistically significant increase in the average temperature of the muscles of the thoracic and lumbar spine was observed in subjects of both sexes (1.2◦C and 1.28◦C, respectively, p < 0.05). At the same time, VO2max increased from 42.98 ml/kg/min to 43.6 ml/kg/min in male subjects and from 40.4 ml/kg/min to 41.1 ml/kg/min in female subjects (p > 0.05). The relationship between VO2max and temperature of the muscles of the thoracic and lumbar spine after the 30th SAT was not statistically significant (r = - 0.28; p = 0.226; r = - 0.11; p = 0.634, respectively). The study showed that a 30-weeklong step aerobics training (SAT) had a positive impact on thermoregulation of apparently healthy male and female subjects aged 20. Furthermore, it can be safely assumed that thermography may be used as a non-invasive method of examination of the thermoregulation mechanism of SAT participants.
Jolanta G. Zuzda, Magdalena Topczewska, Piotr Borkowski and Robert Latosiewicz
The aim of this paper is to describe and assess the energetic-metabolic activity of selected muscles of upper and lower extremities during Rotational Training (RT). The influence of RT on temperature changes in the biceps and triceps brachii muscles as well as the quadriceps and biceps femoris muscles of healthy university students were verified, in addition to temperature differences between the left and right side before and after RT. The study was conducted on 18 subjects. RT was conducted in accordance with accepted forms of training methodology of collective fitness. An important part of RT was the performance of circular and rotational movements. Thermograms taken before and immediately after RT focused on 4 regions of selected agonists and synergists in the upper and lower body. The camera used was the infrared hand-held CEDIP Titanium 560M IR (USA), located at a distance of 10 m from the subject. After RT, median Tsk (skin temperature) decreased in almost all of the examined ROIs, except for the left and right Qf (the quadriceps femoris, rectus femoris, and sartorius muscles) as well as the left Tb (triceps brachii) in female subjects. In male subjects, left and right Tsk of Qf increased both for the left and right Tb. Left-Right ΔTsk (temperature difference) was statistically significant (p <0.05) for Of, Bf, Bb, Tb in female as well as male subjects. It was concluded that thermography is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method for the recording of physiological response of the skin to RT.
Wiesław Półjanowicz, Robert Latosiewicz, Barbara Kołodziejczak and Magdalena Roszak
Distance education undoubtedly has many advantages, such as individualization of the learning process, unified transmission of teaching materials, the opportunity to study at any place and any time, reduction of financial costs for commuting to classes or accommodation of participants, etc. Adequate working conditions on the e-learning portal must also be present, eg. well-prepared, substantive courses and good communication between the participants. Therefore, an important element in the process of conducting e-learning courses is to measure the increase of knowledge and satisfaction of participants with distance learning. It allows for fine-tuning the content of the course and for classes to be properly organized. This paper presents the results of teaching and assessment of satisfaction with e-learning courses in “Problems of multiculturalism in medicine”, “Selected issues of visual rehabilitation” and “Ophthalmology and Ophthalmic Nursing”, which were carried out experimentally at the Faculty of Health Sciences at the Medical University of Bialystok for nursing students for the 2010/2011 academic year. The study group consisted of 72 part-time students who learnt in e-learning mode and the control group of 87 students who learnt in the traditional way. The students’ opinions about the teaching process and final exam scores were analyzed based on a specially prepared survey questionnaire. Organization of e-learning classes was rated positively by 90% of students. The average result on the final exams for all distance learning subjects was at the level of 82%, while for classes taught in the traditional form it was 81%. Based on these results, we conclude that distance learning is as effective as learning according to the traditional form in medical education studies.
Wiesław Półjanowicz, Grzegorz Mrugacz, Michał Szumiński, Robert Latosiewicz, Alina Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Anna Bryl and Małgorzata Mrugacz
This paper presents an analysis of learning effectiveness for the courses “Selected issues in visual rehabilitation” and “Ophthalmology and ophthalmic nursing” taught in the years 2009-2011 at the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. We compared the effectiveness of traditional and distance learning methods; an e-learning platform was implemented experimentally for the purpose of this study. We assessed the usefulness of online learning in terms of organization, knowledge gained and students’ satisfaction with the course. The study was conducted among 75 second year master degree students in the nursing field in the academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The students were divided into two groups. For the study group of 39 persons (52%), lectures and seminars took place on an e-learning platform, while 36 persons (48%) in the control group attended traditional classes. 80% of students in the e-learning group and 89% of students in the traditional group assessed the organization of both forms of courses positively. The fact that the majority of students in both the e-learning (89%) and traditional classes (86%) gave positive feedback indicates that for both forms there was a high level of content and technical preparedness. The mean scores of the final exam for both courses were 82% in the e-learning group and 79% in the traditional group in the years 2009- 2011. The above results show that both forms of learning are equally effective.