Biometrics of the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) Migrating in Autumn Along the Polish Baltic Coast
The aim of this study is to present the general biometrical characteristics of Dunlins passing the Polish Baltic coast during autumn migration. Data were collected between the first week of July and the end of September in 1991-2002. Comparison of the mean wing lengths of Dunlins from different regions revealed that birds migrating through the Puck Bay had on average shorter wings than those trapped in areas located more south-easterly and clearly longer than those from Mauritania. In adults, seasonal variation of mean bill and wing lengths showed sigmoid pattern with larger birds in July at the beginning of migration and in mid-September. Such pattern is typical for this species, because females, which are larger than males, migrate earlier. Similar pattern of seasonal changes of mean bill and wing lengths might be noted in second-year birds. Juveniles caught in July must have belonged to local population of C. a. shinzii, which is smaller than the nominative subspecies. The sample of juvenile birds trapped in the beginning of August probably consisted of individuals from both subspecies, which resulted in the lower mean values of wing and bill lengths. Changes in the size of juveniles from year to year might be caused by differences in food availability on the breeding grounds, e.g. due to weather conditions.
Migration Dynamics and Seasonal Variation In the Biometrics of the Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata) Migrating through the Lower Vistula Valley (N Poland) in Autumn
The aim of this study was to present data on the phenology of autumn migration of the Eurasian Curlew passing the lower Vistula valley and to determine whether there is a difference in biometrics between early and late migrants, which may reflect different timing of migration of birds from different parts of the breeding range. Studies were conducted in the lower Vistula valley in 2003-2008. Median date of migration fell into 9-13 August pen-tade. The migration dynamics showed major day-to-day changes in bird numbers and almost all of observed flocks migrated without staying in the study area. Moreover, only one bird was caught twice during the season. It indicates that lower Vistula valley is not an attractive stopover site for Eurasian Curlews. There were significant differences in the total head lengths, bill lengths and body masses of birds caught in different ten-days periods with larger and heavier birds occurring towards the end of the study period (ANOVA, Neuman-Keuls test: p < 0.05 in all cases). The gradual increase in the total head and bill lengths and probably also in body mass indicates that bigger birds from the eastern part of the breeding range migrate later than smaller birds, which breed in the west. There were no significant differences in wing length, tarsus length and tarsus with toe length (ANOVA, Neuman-Keuls test: p > 0.05 in all cases). Subspecies N. a. arquata and N. a. orientalis have similar wing length and in this study there were no significant differences for this measurement between following decades of the studied period. Collected data suggest that the wing length, which had clearly bimodal distribution, should be the best linear measurements for sexing at least juvenile Eurasian Curlews.
This paper analyses the nickel based superalloy Inconel 713C casts typically used in high and low pressure turbines of aircraft engines. The ingots were manufactured in the Research and Development Laboratory for Aerospace Materials at the Rzeszów University of Technology. The superalloy structures were analysed by the following methods: X-ray diffraction orientation measurement and ultrasonic wave propagation. Ultrasonic techniques are mainly used to measure the blade wall’s thickness. Measurement accuracy is determined by the velocity of the ultrasonic wave in the material tested. This work evaluates the effect of the nickel-based superalloy microstructure on the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation. Three different macrostructures: equiax (EQ), directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) were analysed. The authors determined the crystal misorientation in the obtained casts as the deviation of  crystallographic direction from the withdrawal axis or the main axis of the ingots. The measurements performed allowed researchers to identify significant differences in the wave velocity between EQ, DS and SX structures.
Autumn Migration of Waders (Charadrii) at the Reda Mouth (N Poland)
The migration of waders was investigated at the Reda mouth (Polish Baltic coast) between 1996 and 2001. During the study 496 counts were conducted in the period between 5 July and 5 October. The most numerous species observed were: the Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) - 39.5% and Dunlin (Calidris alpina) - 29.8% of all waders. Because of a variety of habitats in the Reda mouth region, among the waders staging numerously in the Reda mouth there were species typical both for coastal and inland habitat. It was shown that birds from tundra zone migrated later than those from more southern breeding areas, which was caused by much later beginning of egg laying in northern latitudes. Moreover, in the species from tundra zone, e.g. the Knot (Calidris canutus), Little Stint (C. minuta), Curlew Sandpiper (C. ferruginea), the migration of both age classes were well separated, whereas in those from more southern areas, e.g. the Little Ringed Plover (Charadius dubius), Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), such difference was less pronounced and the period of common passage of adults and juveniles was much longer. A comparison of the obtained data on migration pattern with some other sites in Poland where regular counts were conducted showed several similarities and some discrepancies, which are discussed in the paper.