This paper focuses on the influence of crystallographic orientation on creep resistance of CMSX-4 nickel-based superalloy. The single-crystal rods of CMSX-4 superalloy were manufactured with the use of the Bridgman method at a withdrawal rate of 3 mm/min. The crystallographic orientation of the rods was determined by the X-ray Ω-scan method with OD-EFG diffractometer and the Laue back-reflection technique. The creep tests were performed at a temperature of 982°C and the value of stress σ = 248 MPa. Microstructural investigation before and after the creep test of CMSX-4 superalloy was performed using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the distribution of the values of α angle strongly affects the creep resistance of a single-crystal superalloy.
The aim of this article is to present the history and the current state of Bryjarka hill, situated in Szczawnica (the Beskid Sądecki range in southern Poland) in relation to its environmental and cultural values. Another aim of this article is to show that Bryjarka hill plays an important role in the biological, geological and cultural aspects of the region. It represents cultural significance where the traces of human activities date back to medieval times.