The purpose of the study was to identify the influence of reactive mixture concentration (23–48 g/100 mL), pH (6.5–9.0), presence of NaCl (0.05–0.25 mol/L) and enzyme dose (2850–28,500 LAU/100 g of lactose) on the synthesis of galactosyl mannitol derivative using β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis. The use of the enzyme dose ranging from 2850 to 11,400 LAU/100 g lactose allowed obtaining gal-mannitol at the level of 21.8% total saccharides; higher doses intensified product decomposition. An increase in the concentration of the reactive mixture had a positive impact on the quantity of gal-mannitol obtained every single time, i.e. 4.39 g were obtained from 100 mL of a 23 g/100 mL solution and over 10 g were obtained from a 48 g/100 mL solution. A relatively low increase in product quantity (by ca. 5%) occurred after the pH was increased from 6.5 to 9.0. The use of NaCl rendered better results. An increase in the maximum content of gal-mannitol in the total sugar by 12.8% was observed at the concentration of 0.25 mol/L.
Fatigue behaviour is one of the most important properties of modern airplanes and rivets influence it strongly. According to the literature, the NACA riveting offers a multiple increase in the fatigue life of joints.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the benefits offered by the NACA riveting procedure with respect to the residual stress and strain distribution after riveting as well as rivet hole expansion. Experimental and numerical approaches were adopted. The conventional riveting with both the universal and countersunk rivets was compared with the NACA riveting. The countersunk angle and depth in the case of the NACA riveting was modified somewhat relative to the values met in the literature. For these three cases, strain gauge measurements during riveting, hole expansion measurements and FE calculations were performed. The hole expansion measurement with the use of Computer Tomography(CT) was proposed.
Only the FE calculations unambiguously indicate better fatigue properties of the NACA riveting. The proposed method of hole expansion measurement requires further research to increase its accuracy.