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Open access

Robert Cichowicz and Grzegorz Wielgosiński

Abstract

The quality of atmospheric air and the level of its pollution is inextricably linked with the development of humanity. Its prevalence and the lack of any natural protective barriers causes that it becomes a recipient of increasingly large amounts of different types of pollutants. This is particularly dangerous in the areas where both meteorological conditions and type of building prevent the spread of pollution. By using a portable gas micro-chromatograph it is possible to observe and analyze a seasonal impact of building density on carbon dioxide concentration and the effect of atmospheric conditions on CO2 level in the air in a specified area.

Open access

Robert Cichowicz and Grzegorz Wielgosiński

Abstract

The condition and quality of atmospheric air plays a very important role in the life of every living organism, including man. Every day we breathe atmospheric air containing CO2 whose level changes depending both on many external factors and physicochemical processes. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air changes, among other things, due to the influence of communication routes which may adversely affect the environment. For this reason it is necessary to analyze changes in CO2 concentrations and try to determine their impact on the functioning of users of the area (so, one can observe and analyze seasonal impact of communication routes on separate sub-areas of research).

Open access

Robert Cichowicz and Grzegorz Wielgosiński

Abstract

Variations in immission fields resulting from emissions and pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere were investigated. The analysis was based on data from the four-year period covering the years 2012-2015, collected in two automatic atmospheric air monitoring stations, one located in Germany in Magdeburg which is the capital of Saxony-Anhalt and the other in Poland in Lodz, i.e. the seat of Lodz Region authorities. Selected immission monitoring stations in both cities are located in the areas with similar urban development and are characterized by high levels of pedestrian and car traffic. In both measuring stations the following atmospheric air pollutants were measured: PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, and ozone (carbon monoxide was analyzed only for the station located in Lodz). On the basis of the measured data the periodic exceedance of air pollution limit values measured at both monitoring stations were observed, as well as the levels of particular pollutants and changes in immission fields were analyzed. It seems that this information may be useful not only to the competent authorities of the country but also to the users of these areas.

Open access

Grzegorz Wielgosiński, Robert Cichowicz and Jacek Wiśniewski

Abstract

In quantitative terms, sludge produced in the process of municipal wastewater treatment represents a small part of the total waste generated in municipal sources - its quantity represents only a few percent of the generated mass of municipal waste. However, the threats it brings, do not allow it to be neglected while designing the wastewater treatment process. At the same time, with increasing requirements regarding the quality of sewage discharged into the environment, there is an increase in the amount of sludge produced in wastewater treatment processes. In recent years, the share of thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has risen sharply - about 12 modern sludge incineration plants have been built and construction of new ones is considered. During more than a four-year operation of the sewage sludge incineration plant in the Combined Sewage Treatment Plant in Lodz (GOS) a large ammonia emission from the combustion process was observed. So, a decision was taken to examine this process. The paper presents results of ammonia emission from the combustion of sewage sludge from GOS as a function of temperature.

Open access

Robert Cichowicz, Grzegorz Wielgosiński and Agata Targaszewska

Abstract

Analysis of the distribution of CO2 concentrations was performed for a water-and-steam boiler plant located in a detached building supplying thermal energy to a hospital. The boiler plant was equipped with two low-temperature boilers and one high-temperature steam boiler. The maximum thermal energy demand of the hospital was 4280, 3500 kW of which came from the hot-water boilers and the remaining 780 kW from the steam boiler. Due to the operating system there were no permanent job positions in the boiler plant. Servicing consisted only in the supervision, periodic adjustment and maintenance of the equipment. These kinds of working conditions release the employer from the necessity to perform tests and measurements of working conditions in such a building. On the other hand, continuous measurements are made because of the installation safety and emissions of pollutants into the environment. The article presents results of the measurements and analysis of the distribution of CO2 concentrations inside and outside a small boiler plant, due to which it was found that the level of carbon dioxide concentration did not depend on the ambient air temperature. The resulting values are similar regardless of whether the measurements were taken in December 2012 or April 2013. However, there is an evident impact of seasons on the concentrations in the indoor air associated primarily with the demand for heat during the given period, the stay of people in the workplace and the number of working devices.

Open access

Robert Cichowicz, Henryk Sabiniak and Grzegorz Wielgosińsk

Abstract

Carbon dioxide can affect on human mood and working conditions in closed area. Knowledge about the level of air pollutants concentration in the room, should be a guideline to design a properly working ventilation system. For years carbon dioxide, appearing during human breathing, was not taken into consideration as a factor determining the process of ventilation systems design. At present the assessment of air quality in closed rooms is performed on the basis of measurement of concentration of carbon dioxide metabolically produced by humans that can be referred to the so-called hygienic minimum, eg the upper limit of CO2 concentration equal to 1000 ppm (0.1%).

Open access

Grzegorz Wielgosiński, Robert Cichowicz, Agata Targaszewska and Jacek Wiśniewski

Abstract

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the new, little more popular in Poland of elements of environmental management. In the world literature one can find many examples of the use of LCA but mainly for comparison purposes. The paper presents results of LCA analysis made on the basis of data from a running incineration of sewage sludge. Performing a thorough analysis of this process enables improved operational system, including through a better use of the resulting products of combustion, as well as determining the impact of the thermal treatment of sludge on the environment and compared the results with data from the literature. To date, in Poland has not been carried out environmental impact assessments and the process of thermal treatment of both sludge and waste, based on the assumptions of LCA.