Randia dumetorum (family Rubiaceae) is highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as the Mainphal. A large deciduous thorny shrub grows up to 5 m of height. It occurs almost throughout India up to 1200 m of altitude. It is found in Himalaya from Jammu East ward ascending to 400 m and from Kashmir to East ward up to 1200 m. 11-methylixoside (compound 1), an iridoid glucoside, was isolated from the bark of this plant. The structure was characterized by using spectroscopic methods including 1D-1HNMR,13C-NMR and 2D-NMR (HSQC,HMBC, DQF-COSY) experiments and confirmed by comparison of their NMR data with those from the literature. This compound has been reported for the first time in Randia dumetorum bark. The 11-methylixoside was subjected to cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer cell line) and SK-MEL-2 (human skin melanoma cell line), BE(2)C (neuroblastoma cell line derived from human bone marrow) and U87MG (human neuronale glioblastoma (astrozytom) cell line showed appreciable cytotoxic effect with IC50 value 63.10 µg/ml concentration for SK-MEL-2 (human skin melanoma cell line).
β-sitosterol and two triterpenoids: ursolic acid acetate and platanic acid have been isolated from ethanolic extract of Vitex trifola leaves. β-sitosterol was previously isolated from the leaves, stem and seeds of Vitex trifolia. Ursolic acid acetate has been isolated for the first time in this plant species. Platanic acid has been reported for the first time in Vitex trifolia and even in the family of this plant: Verbenaceae. These compounds were characterized using spectroscopic methods including 1D-1HNMR, 13CNMR, ESIMS and 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY) experiments and confirmed by comparison of their NMR data with those from the literature. A preliminary molluscicidal test for ethanol, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of leaves of Vitex trifolia against Biomphalaria alexandrina adult snails showed that ethanol extract of leaves with LC50 value 26.42 mg/l (27.92 mg/l - 24.99 mg/l) was more effective than n-hexane extract with LC50 value 35.48 mg/l (43.81 mg/l - 28.72mg/l) and chloroform extract with LC50 value 46.77 mg/l (53.59 mg/l - 43.81 mg/l) after 24 h exposure.