Edyta Łaszkiewicz, Guanpeng Dong and Richard Harris
As is well known, ignoring spatial heterogeneity leads to biased parameter estimates, while omitting the spatial lag of a dependent variable results in biasness and inconsistency (Anselin, 1988). However, the common approach to analysing households’ expenditures is to ignore the potential spatial effects and social dependence. In light of this, the aim of this paper is to examine the consequences of omitting the spatial effects as well as social dependence in households’ expenditures.
We use the Household Budget Survey microdata for the year 2011 from which we took households’ expenditures for fruits and vegetables. The effect of ignoring spatial effects and/or social dependence is analysed using four different models obtained by imposing restrictions on the core parameters of the hierarchical spatial autoregressive model (HSAR). Finally, we estimate the HSAR model to demonstrate the existence of spatial effects and social dependence.
We find the omitted elements of the external environment affect negatively the estimates for other spatial (social) effect parameters. Especially, we notice the overestimation of the random effect variance when the social dependence is omitted and the overestimation of the social interaction effect when the spatial heterogeneity is ignored.
Michael Bergin, Ian Norman, Michelle Foley, Richard Harris, Anna Rapca, Eileen Rich and Marie-Claire Van Hout
Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.