This article presents a qualitative study of lifelong learning (LLL) requirements of university employees from the Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME). The main aim of the study was to gain understanding of young people expectations and attitudes towards LLL. Aims of the study included: identification of employees’ requirements in terms of LLL; identification of education activities and employee perception of university activities. Data for the study were gathered in individual interviews. The same, standardized openended questions were used in both institutions to allow comparison of the results. Interview questions concerned the willingness of participation in LLL, education forms, areas of education and perception of the university. The participants of the interviews were 24 young people from the WUT and BME. Research shows that there are no significant differences between Polish and Hungarian representatives who are eager to learn and have many interests and positive features; however, they have high requirements and expectations. This research will allow to prepare informative and effective LLL universities’ strategies.
Composite nonwoven materials such as polypropylene are widely used for medical purposes due to their unique properties. During the production process, polymer fibers are created using multiple extruders; the material is formed from a web of polypropylene fibers bonded together by cooling and rolling out between cylinders. The production process is often unreliable; hence properties such as water resistance vary across the length of the composite. The nonwovens are often used to manufacture medical attire, which further needs to be sterilized, and in order to choose the optimal method, one needs to know the cloth's water resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the statistical distribution of permeability in composite nonwovens and its relevance to business decisions. Investigation was performed on multiple samples at different stages of production. It was found that water resistance is strictly correlated with the quality of the material and is increased in the sterilization process. The statistical analysis of water resistance in nonwoven material, both raw and processed, can be used by medical manufacturers in order to optimize costs in the production process.
Semen was collected from Polish Halfbred stallions. Twenty individuals from 3 to 4 years of age were selected for the study. At least one ejaculate from each stallion was collected and assessed. Sperm morphology was evaluated using Papanicolaou stain, SpermBlue®, and a complex of eosin and gentian stain, whereas unstained slides were used as control samples. Morphometric measurements were performed on 100 randomly selected sperm heads in each ejaculate. The length, width, perimeter, and surface area of the sperm head were measured. The frequency of nuclear vacuoles was determined as well. Tygerberg’s strict criteria, which most precisely characterise the sperm head, were used in the morphological evaluation of the sperm. The results obtained indicate that in the case of staining with SpermBlue® and with eosin+gentian complex, the morphometry of the sperm head seems to be most similar to that observed in unstained smears. It also seems that neither shrinking nor swelling is uniform in the various staining techniques (Papanicolaou stain). Moreover, it appears that in comparison with unstained sperm, all methods caused the width of the head to increase as a result of swelling.
After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.
The study was conducted on spermatozoa of selected farm and free-living animal species, isolated post mortem from the tail of the epididymis, and stained with silver nitrate - AgNO3. The material was collected from pigs, goats, wild boar, and European roe deer. Twenty morphologically normal spermatozoa randomly selected from each animal and well visible under the microscope, were analysed. The following measurements were considered: head length, width, perimeter and area, acrosome area, mid-piece length, tail length, and overall sperm length. AgNO3 staining differentiated the acrosomal (light hue) and distal (dark hue) part of the sperm head, and a light-hued mid-piece was visible within the sperm tail. Silver nitrate staining revealed species and variety-related differences, particularly in reference to the sperm head. Clear-cut differentiation within the head and tail area made it possible to perform detailed morphometric measurements of the spermatozoa.
The article presents a problem and differences of financial liquidity and profitability. The survey of financial liquidity and profitability, underwritten by the College of Economics and Social Sciences of Warsaw University of Technology, was conducted on Płock Subregion enterprises. The survey concerned cash flow management, receivables controlling, trade credits, different payments and receivables. The results of the conducted survey indicate that the majority of companies from the subregion of Płock suffer several problems and despite a wide range of possibilities of using different tools for the management of receivables, the respondents do not use them efficiently. The survey has shown that most of them applies only the most popular, simplest and cheapest solutions, but, consequently the least efficient.
The aim of the paper is the analysis of the household use of durables in Poland and other European countries. Relatively, the highest amount of money for household furnishing with durables was spent by the Bulgarians and the Italians (more than 7% of the total household expenses). In Poland, the highest expenditure occurred for the wealthiest households and those where the head of the household had a university degree while the least money was spent in numerous-family households. The best equipped households (quantity wise) were such that had one or two children and those where the household head had a university degree. The cluster analysis allowed distinguishing household groups of similar durables ownership level. These groups may be treated as consumer segments. The presented analyses also indicate the trends of the Polish consumers regarding the possession of durables.