Predicting Bread Quality (Bread Loaf Volume and Crumb Texture)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of flour and dough alveograph properties in simultaneous determination of bread loaf volume and crumb texture. Ten Polish spring wheat cultivars were used in this study. Flour was determined for protein content, wet gluten content, gluten elasticity, Zeleny sedimentation volume, falling number, and ash content. Alveograph properties of the dough were strength, tenacity, extensibility, and elasticity resistance. After the straight dough bread making test, the loaf volume and breadcrumb texture were measured. Textural properties of the breadcrumbs were tested by texture profile analysis (TPA). The parameters recorded were hardness, cohesiveness, and gumminess. The results were analysed statistically to develop effective predictive models, the stepwise regression procedure and canonical analysis were applied. The results from the experimental tests indicated that among the variables, the flour protein content, the Zeleny sedimentation index, the flour falling number, and dough strength were the main factors affecting the textural properties of the breadcrumb alone and with the bread loaf volume. The results showed that a combination of several flour and dough alveograph properties could predict bread quality.
Ryszard Kulig, Grzegorz Łysiak, Zbigniew Krzysiak, Monika Wójcik and Renata Różyło
This paper presents the results of pea straw compaction efficiency tests. The compliance of the tested material to pressure agglomeration was assessed depending on the compaction pressure used (45-113 MPa). The compaction was carried out using a Zwick testing machine, type Z020/TN2S, and a closed die pressing unit. It was found that, along with the pressure increase, the material density in the chamber increased (from 1.255 to 1.76 g∙cm−3), as well as the agglomerate's density (from 0.739 to 1.05 g∙cm−3) and the product's mechanical resistance (from 0.31 to 0.69 MPa). Increasing the compaction pressure in the analyzed range increased the unit value of compaction work, from 17.16 to 34.27 J·g−1.