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  • Author: Renata Krzyszycha x
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The current epidemiological situation in Poland is characterized by prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as the main cause of mortality. In the paper the current state of knowledge on the importance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in CVD prevention is presented, taking into consideration the latest recommendations on CVD prevention. In a nutrition strategy based on consumption of low GI/GL foods, the target of the intervention is the profile of dietary carbohydrates which is treated as a modulator of glycemic response. In the light of the current state of research, there is no reason to treat GI/GL values as markers of pro-health qualities of the dietary plan recommended in CVD prevention to individuals with normal glucose homeostasis. However, the preventive potential of diets characterized by low GI/GL deserves a more extensive application in patients with glucose homeostasis disturbances, including those with prediabetes and insulin resistance syndrome. Taking into account the relations between abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and a risk of developing diabetes, followed by CVD, the benefits of low-glycemic diets in individuals with impaired glucose homeostasis can indirectly result in lowering the risk of CVD. It is reasonable to conduct further clinical studies on the relevance of low GI/GL diets in preventive cardiology.


The objective of the study is a critical analysis of the selected alternative diets used in the treatment of obesity inconsistent with the recommended standards, from the perspective of clinical dieticians, based on up-to-date guidelines for dietary management of obesity. Attention was paid to the assumptions of the selected alternative diets, some physiological mechanisms related with their use, as well as the deficit of data pertaining their distant effectiveness and safety. In the context of the current epidemiological situation concerning the prevalence of obesity, it is justifiable to undertake actions aimed at the professionalization of dietary management in obesity, consisting in the application of the treatment methods based on data generated in the EBM paradigm, with a simultaneous indication and criticism of dietary pseudo-therapies with unconfirmed curative value which, in addition, do not guarantee the reduction of the risk of metabolic complications of obesity.


Introduction. In Poland, among patients coming to hospital emergency departments (ED), one third require immediate surgical treatment. About one third are transferred to long-term intensive care. The remaining patients require a different type of care, e.g. consultation, healing wounds, observation in the emergency department. From there, they might either be referred to another hospital department or sent home after receiving outpatient help.

Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pain and stress in patients treated in the emergency department with particular emphasis on the factors that determine their level.

Material and methods. The study group consisted of 200 individuals treated in the emergency department of the Regional Hospital No. 2 in Rzeszów in 2013. The applied research method was a diagnostic survey that used a questionnaire as a research tool. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 20, whereas a statistically significant dependence was considered in those with level of significance p≤0.05.

Results. Most respondents reported pain and feelings of stress while staying in the ED. Women and the unemployed were significantly less likely to report pain. Factors like gender, age, education level, and the coexistence of chronic diseases significantly affected the degree of stress among patients in the ED.

Conclusion. Each patient treated at the emergency department should receive holistic care, so that the pain and stress of his injuries are reduced as soon as possible.


Article 4, (1) Act of 15 July 2011 on the Professions of Nurse and Midwife specifies that the profession of a nurse encompasses providing health services. Point 6 specifies the kind and scope of attendance benefits, both for the patient and the care provider. It needs emphasizing that there is a statutory possibility of determining these benefits by nurses, understood as an opportunity to express a professional opinion related to specialized professional activities. This very study will both present and discuss an opinion that was created as a reference to the quoted article. The opinion is related to the scope, types and methods of performing nursing activities for the patient-plaintiff looking to receive a compensation from a healthcare entity. The document created during the process was used by the general court in the pending civil proceeding.

The description that was created took the form of an established standard of care. It defines the specificity, tasks and the amount of time that every nurse needs to spend caring for a patient who is bed-bound. The opinion was created to be used during court proceedings and can be applied to similar cases. This may establish it as a source of medical knowledge in case of recommended and desired scope care exercised by nurses, physiotherapists and paramedics.