Assessments of the infiltration recharge of groundwater are performed using various methods and on different scales. Infiltration is dependent of climatic factors, aspects of water circulation, as well as on quasi-stationary and variable environmental features of a specific area, which are frequently difficult to determine on the basis of direct measurements or observations. The objective of the present study was to identify factors conditioning recharge of shallow groundwater in selected catchment areas of the Poznań Upland using the WetSpass simulation water balance model with spatially distributed parameters. Our analysis has indicated favourable and unfavourable conditions for recharge of groundwater in the annual period and in both half-year periods, which are the result of mutual relationships between the physical qualities of these catchment areas and their climatic and hydrological characteristics. The results obtained also confirmed the impact of surface runoff and actual evapotranspiration on the spatial distribution of effective infiltration. With soil types and groundwater depth distributions being similar in the catchment areas, changes in relationships between components of water balance are caused by differences in the type of land usage. Application of the WetSpass model has made it possible to arrive at a more accurate assessment of groundwater recharge. The results obtained may be used for erification of recharge areas and values of effective infiltration, set as a boundary condition in groundwater flow models.
In the paper we present the results of shallow groundwater recharge estimation using the WetSpass GISbased distributed water balance model. By taking into account WetSpass, which stands for Water an Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere under quasi-Steady State, for average conditions during the period 1961-2000, we assessed the spatial conditions of the groundwater infiltration recharge process of shallow circulation systems in the Poznan Plateau area (the Great Poland Lowland in western Poland), which is classified as a region with observed water deficits. For three temporal variants, i.e. year, winter and summer half-years, we determined using the geological infiltration method by about 5-10% on average, marginally by 20%.
The main purpose of the research was to determine the conditions affecting ice phenomena, including the three-phase cycle of ice: expansion, retention and decay of the ice cover on selected rivers of the Baltic coastal zone in the Northern Poland (Przymorze region). The analysis has been elaborated for the years 1951–2010 against the backdrop of currently occurring climatic changes, with particular emphasis on the development and phase variability of the NAO. The article presents the impact of the variability in atmospheric circulation which has manifested in an increase in air temperature, over the last 20 years, on thermal conditions during winter periods in the South Baltic Coastal Strip. The increase in air temperature has contributed to an increase in the temperature of river waters, thus leading to a shortening of the duration of ice phenomena on rivers in the Przymorze region. The article also brings to light an increased occurrence of winter seasons classified as cool, and a disruption in the occurrence of periods classified as normal over the last 30 observed years. The research has demonstrated a significant dependence between the seasonal change in air temperature and the variability of thermal conditions of water, which has a direct impact on the variability of the icing cycle of rivers in the Przymorze region. The authors also show that the variability in forms of ice phenomena for individual river sections is determined by the local factors, i.e. anthropogenic activity, impact of urbanized areas or inflow of pollutants.