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  • Author: Remigijus Civinskas x
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Can a Senior Civil Servant Adapt to Managing by Contract? Reform and Civil Servants' Preferences in Lithuanian Government

This article seeks to explain the attitudes of civil servants to the preparation of redesigning the civil service system. The starting point for this study is the perplexing point that the plans to reform the Lithuanian civil service system, which was designed to enhance the influence and role of top managers, resulted in the civil servants themselves as the plan's most conspicuous opponents. The article provides explanations to this puzzling situation, drawing on contractualization as the radical reform model or public management model. An attempt is made to find some support for performance contracts, as well as the objectives of rotation implementation and the creation of a higher civil service system. The article argues that civil servants may regard contracts and other managerial elements as a way of realizing other objectives in the reform that they value.

Institutional Contexts of the Implementation of Quality Initiatives in the Public Sectors of Finland and Lithuania

This article reports the results of research of public service quality reform initiatives in Lithuania and Finland. Research reveals that quality management has been in vogue within the manufacturing sectors of both countries for several decades. The service industries have made heavy investments in this area. There are also major initiatives from the public sector to improve quality. This paper examines and compares the development of reform conceptions and programmes in terms of institutional interest and power positions. It demonstrates that the initiation and progress of reform initiatives were determined by particular unforeseen and accidental circumstances in both countries. On the other hand, it explains why Finnish institutions were ready for a constructive dialogue, and a pilot try-outs option in implementation or reform instruments. Lithuanian institutions, by comparison, are characterized by the creation of new structures and self-seeking interests. Finally, the paper reveals how the instruments of public service quality improvement were implemented in both countries.


Despite the absence of the long-term tradition of inter-municipal cooperation in Lithuania, the country represents a compelling case of cooperative solutions which are mostly focused on public services delivery design imposed by the central government. The article provides theoretical and empirical insights on the inter-municipal cooperative capacities and their scope in the case of Lithuania, with reference to the size of the municipality. The results reveal that the large size municipalities are more likely to benefit from collaborative arrangements in comparison to small size municipalities which have less institutional ability for collaboration. In this respect, the external influences imposed by the central authorities’ agenda on implementing economy of scale principles and strong municipal service delivery regulations is extremely important for understanding the municipal efforts for collaboration.


This article analyses the contextual factors and their impact on the planned creation of senior civil service (henceforth, SCS) within the Lithuanian civil service system since 2008. Based on a survey of Lithuanian senior executives’ conducted in 2014 and qualitative semi-structured interviews, the aim of this article is to reveal and explain incentives and obstacles of SCS reform in Lithuania. Empirical research data clarifies attitudes of senior civil servants and their role perceptions. Senior executives’ attitudes towards the establishment of the SCS system were clearly positive. However, the research data reveals that supportive attitudes depend on the perception of the roles of senior executives. Senior civil servants who perceived themselves firstly as actors in policy formation and policy implementers were much more favourable towards the creation of SCS than senior civil servants with other role identities.


The article discusses the issues of employee financial participation in Baltic states which differs and depends on political, legal and economic preconditions. The aim of the research is to analyse employee financial participation as an instrument for collaboration in companies and a new social cooperation model in the Baltic states. The qualitative research was conducted by telephone and e-mail in 2016. The interviews were carried out with the experts (academics, civil servants, lawyers and human resource consultants working in a relevant field) as well some trade union and company representatives. In general, the new policy for supporting employee financial participation has been renewed in Latvia and Lithuania. It started recently with the revision of the legislative framework that was initially established during the privatisation period. The revision of the Law of Companies was driven by the business interest (to have a new effective human resource management tool or to transfer employee share plans from parent companies in Western countries to subsidiaries in the Baltic states) to introduce (or revise, in the case of Lithuania) new employee share ownership (ESO) plans. The research has also proven that there are common similarities in the use of employee financial participation plans despite the existing differences which are based on national features, such as tax and legal regimes, historical development patterns, or economic and structural factors.