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  • Author: Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner x
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Open access

Concentrations and uptake of micronutrients by oat and pea in intercrops in response to N fertilization and sowing ratio

Konzentrationen und Aufnahme von Mikronährstoffen durch Hafer und Erbse in Gemengen in Abhängigkeit der N-Düngung und des Mischungsverhältnisses

Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner and Hans-Peter Kaul

Summary

Intercropping is of increasing interest in temperate regions. This study assessed the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization and sowing ratio on concentrations and uptake of micronutrients copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in grain and residue of oat and pea in three substitutive intercrops on a fertile soil in eastern Austria. N increased grain concentrations of Cu and Zn in oat and pea but decreased the nutrient harvest indices especially for pea. Intercropping did not affect grain concentrations of oat but those of pea were increased in one year in intercrops with a lower pea share. Residue concentrations of Cu and Zn in oat were increased in intercrops with lower oat share. Pea residue concentrations of all four micronutrients were affected by intercropping. Slightly higher grain nutrient yields could be obtained for Mn and Zn in oat-dominated unfertilized intercrops, whereas the residue micronutrient yields were higher in all intercrops compared to pure stands because of generally higher nutrient concentrations in intercrops. Consequently, advantages of oat–pea intercrops for increasing micronutrient yield in grain were limited, but intercropping can be a strategy for increasing the micronutrient yield in residue that can be used for ruminant feeding.

Open access

Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra, Jacek Strojny, Tadeusz Zając, Anna Ślizowska, Jana Klimešova and Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner

Summary

The development of seeds at various positions in the pod is asynchronous. Thus, the differences of seed dry mass production because of environmental conditions may depend on the cultivar type, type of inoculants and interrelations between seeds per pod, pods per plant or seeds per plant. Presently, a mathematical description of pea seed categorisation is missing. The aim of the study was the assessment of two groups of variables (quantitative and qualitative) for pea seed weight categorisation by ordinal regression model. Year, cultivar and inoculant constituted the first group (qualitative variables), whilst seeds per pod, the pods per plant and seeds per plant (quantitative variables) were entered as covariates in the ordinal regression model. According to the ordinal regression model variables, seeds per pod, pods per plant, seeds per plant, year and cultivar are meaningful predictors of the seed mass categories. However, the variable inoculant is marginally significant.

Open access

Aliyeh Salehi, Sina Fallah, Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner, Bano Mehdi and Hans-Peter Kaul

Summary

Intercropping can increase crop growth and yield due to improved resource use efficiency. A two-year field experiment was performed in Shahrekord (Iran) to determine the effect of crop stand composition and fertilizer type on the productions of aboveground dry matter and growth parameters of fenugreek-buckwheat intercrops. Sole crops of fenugreek (F) and buckwheat (B) were compared to the three substitutive intercropping ratios (F:B = 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2). Crop stands were fertilized with chemical fertilizer or broiler litter. Fenugreek could produce in intercrops a similar amount of above-ground dry matter compared to its corresponding share on the sowing ratio. Contrary to that, buckwheat could produce in intercrops more above-ground dry matter than its share on the sowing ratio, especially with a low to medium share of buckwheat. Consequently, the intercrops with F:B (2:1) and F:B (1:1) had an above-ground dry matter yield advantage compared to the pure crop stands of both crops. Broiler litter was more effective in increasing the growth rates and thus the above-ground dry matter production compared to the chemical fertilizer. Thus, growing fenugreek and buckwheat in intercrops fertilized with broiler litter can be beneficial for increasing the biomass production in semiarid environments.

Open access

Tomáš Lošák, Jakub Elbl, Antonín Kintl, Pavel Čermák, Gabriela Mühlbachová, Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner, Stanislav Torma and Jaroslav Hlušek

Abstract

A two-year pot experiment (5 kg of soil - Mitscherlich pots) was established in a vegetation hall in Brno (Czech Republic) in the years 2016‒2017. Spring barley, variety KWS Irina, was grown. Chernozem from Brno (with a good magnesium (Mg) content and alkali soil reaction - 7.37) was used for this experiment. The rates of Mg (0.075-0.15-0.3 g per pot) and sulphur (S) (0.1-0.2-0.4 g per pot) were increased by using the ESTA Kieserite fertiliser (25% MgO; 20% S), treatments 2-4. Nitrogen was applied in the form of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate - CAN (27% N) at a rate of 1 g N per pot in all the treatments including the control. The effect of the year was found to be significant on all the parameters under study, with the exception of the soil reaction. The exchangeable soil reaction (pH) after the harvest did not differ in all the fertilised treatments (7.40-7.50) compared to the unfertilised control treatment (7.40-7.45) in both years. The content of post-harvest soil Mg and S increased significantly with the applied rate (285-354 mg Mg/kg in fertilised treatments compared to 276-284 mg Mg/kg in unfertilised control and 47-112 mg S/kg in fertilised treatments compared to 24-54 mg S/kg in unfertilised control, respectively). Dry matter yields of the aboveground biomass were significantly the lowest in the control treatment not fertilised with Mg and S during both years (23.00 and 29.02 g DM per pot) and increased after applications of Mg and S: 27.75-29.25-28.25 in 2016 and 30.33-31.00-34.50 in 2017 (g DM per pot).