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Talat Zeeshan, Safia Anjum, Hina Iqbal and Rehana Zia

Abstract

A series of copper substituted cobalt chromium ferrites, CuxCo1 - xCr0.5Fe1.5O4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) has been synthesized, by employing powder metallurgy method. Calcination of the samples has been carried out for 24 hours at 1100 °C. The resultant materials have been investigated by using a variety of techniques, including X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The XRD patterns confirmed that all compositions had a cubic spinel structure with a single phase and the lattice parameter was found to increase with increasing copper concentration. FT-IR spectroscopy has been used for studying the chemical bonds in the spinel ferrite. Shifting of the bands ν1 and ν2 has been observed. It has been revealed from VSM analysis that saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with rising the Cu+2 doping. Magnetic properties have been explained on the basis of cation distribution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to study the surface morphology of prepared samples. UV-Vis analysis revealed the optical absorption of the samples. An increase in band gaps has been observed with increasing copper concentration in the sample.

Open access

Madeeha Riaz, Rehana Zia, Farhat Saleemi, Farooq Bashir, Riaz Ahmad and Tousif Hossain

Abstract

The mechanical properties of silicate glass-ceramics were evaluated based on the compressive strength tests. It was found that Ta2O5 addition improved densification, refinement of the microstructure and toughening of the bodies. The maximum compressive strength of the bodies with 1 mol% Ta2O5 was increased 3-fold (245.92 ±0.3 MPa) in comparison to undoped glass-ceramics which was measured to be 89.04 ±0.3 MPa, while for 3 mol% it became 4-fold (387.12 ±0.4 MPa) greater. The addition of Ta2O5 stabilized the system by controlling the biodegradation of the glass-ceramics. It effectively depressed the apatite formation as by addition of 3 mol% Ta2O5 no apatite layer was observed. It may be concluded from this study that mechanical and physical properties can be improved by the addition of Ta2O5, but at a cost of bioactivity. Still the optimized composition having Ta2O5 ⩽ 1 mol% may provide appropriate strength of biomaterials for high load bearing applications.

Open access

Madeeha Riaz, Rehana Zia, Farhat Saleemi, Farooq Bashir, Tousif Hossain and Zohra Kayani

Abstract

Zinc is an essential trace element that stimulates bone formation but it is also known as an inhibitor of apatite crystal growth. In this work addition of ZnO to SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 glass-ceramic system was made by conventional melt-quenching technique. DSC curves showed that the addition of ZnO moved the endothermic and exothermic peaks to lower temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis did not reveal any additional phase caused by ZnO addition and showed the presence of wollastonite and hydroxyapatite crystalline phases only in all the glass-ceramic samples. As bio-implant apatite forming ability is an essential condition, the surface reactivity of the prepared glass-ceramic specimens was studied in vitro in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF) [1] with ion concentration nearly equal to human blood plasma for 30 days at 37 °C under static condition. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to study the changes in element concentrations in soaking solutions and XRD, FT-IR and SEM were used to elucidate surface properties of prepared glass-ceramics, which confirmed the formation of HCAp on the surface of all glass-ceramics. It was found that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on bioactivity of glass-ceramics and made it a potential candidate for restoration of damaged bones.

Open access

Zohra Nazir Kayani, Maryam Iqbal, Saira Riaz, Rehana Zia and Shahzad Naseem

Abstract

ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by dip coating technique using a solution of zinc acetate, ethanol and distilled water. Optical constants, such as refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. were determined from transmittance spectrum in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) regions using envelope methods. The films were found to exhibit high transmittance, low absorbance and low reflectance in the visible regions. Absorption coefficient α and the thickness of the film t were calculated from interference of transmittance spectra. The direct optical band gap of the films was in the range of 3.98 to 3.54 eV and the thickness of the films was evaluated in the range of 173 to 323 nm, while the refractive index slightly varied in the range of 1.515 to 1.622 with an increase in withdrawal speed from 100 to 250 mm/s. The crystallographic structure of the films was analyzed with X-ray diffractometer. The films were amorphous in nature.

Open access

Salma Waseem, Safia Anjum, Lubna Mustafa, Anum Dar, Farooq Bashir and Rehana Zia

Abstract

A series of Ti0.9Fe0.1-xCrxO2 (where x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.6, 0.08, 0.10) was synthesized using the powder metallurgy route. The structural, morphological, magnetic, optical and electrical properties were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), UV-Vis spec­troscopy and four probe technique, respectively. The rutile phase was confirmed by XRD analysis which was also verified by Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that the grain size increased as the concentration of Cr increased. M-H loops ex­tracted from VSM analysis revealed anti-ferromagnetic, weak ferromagnetic and paramagnetic behaviors at room temperature. The band gap energy and resistivity measurements exhibited the semiconducting nature of Ti0.9Fe0.1-xCrxO2 based diluted magnetic semiconductors.