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  • Author: Reham Sh. Esmail x
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BACKGROUND: Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Colonic adenoma and ulcerative colitis (UC) are important precancerous lesions. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a well-known pro-angiogenic factor plays important role in physiologic and pathologic conditions and in neovascularization in cancer and hence becomes a potential target for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy.

AIM: This study investigated VEGF immunohistochemical expression in colon cancer and its precancerous lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paraffin blocks from two hospitals were collected in a year: Colon cancer: 20 cases, colonic adenoma: 15 cases, UC: 15 cases and 5 controls from normal mucosa. VEGF was assessed immunohistochemically using a primary anti-VEGF antibody (VG1, Dako, Denemark).

RESULTS: Median age was 49 years (range 31-52) in cancer, 40 years (range 31-52) in adenomas and 33 years (range 27-43) in UC. VEGF expression was negative in control, significantly strongly positive in 90% of colonic adenocarcinoma (p= 0.001), significantly positive in adenomas (p= 0.002) - the weak positivity significantly seen in mild dysplasia (p= 0.001) - and significantly positive in 73.3% of UC cases (p=0.022).

CONCLUSION: The significant increase in positivity of VEGF in precancerous to cancerous lesions may point to its potential role in the pathogenesis and progression of colonic neoplasia.


The present study investigated the protective effect of extracts prepared from grape, coriander, roselle and fennel in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. A mixture of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts was prepared from a given plant. Six groups of rats were analyzed; control healthy, cisplatin group and 4 test groups where rats were given a daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP) were assessed in the extracts. Results showed roselle ethanol extract to have the highest phenolic content (15.584 g GAE/100 g extract). Fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of linoleic and linolenic acid in all studied plants. Coriander oil showed the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (85%). GLC investigation of the UNSAP showed the presence of campesterol in all the studied plants. Grape oil contained the highest content of phytosterol (15.9%). Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction in plasma albumin, total protein, catalase activity and total antioxidant level as well as reduction in creatinine clearance compared to normal control. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction by cisplatin. Chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extract mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Extracts mixture under study offered protection from cisplatin induced kidney dysfunction via antioxidant and possibly anti-inflammatory actions


Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are increasing in adults and are likely to be increasing in children. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the protective effect of rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil against high fructose diet (HFD) inducing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The results showed significant elevation of plasma total and direct bilirubin, transaminases activities, total cholesterol (T-Ch), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Ch), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant increase in liver TG, T-Ch and MDA along with significant reduction in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch) and increase in T-Ch/HDL-Ch in rats fed HFD compared to rats fed on balanced diet. Histopathology of liver of rats fed on HFD confirmed the induction of NASH. Rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil produced improvement in the biochemical parameters with different degrees. Pumpkin seed oil reversed all histopathological changes that occur in liver tissue which became comparable to normal in some rats. In conclusion, rats fed high fructose diet are a good model for studying NASH. Rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil afford hepato protection against NASH in rat model.


Background: Cancer colon is one of the most prevalent cancers in Egypt. Sporadic cancer colon is much more common than familial type; the latter accounting for not more than 30% of the reported cases in different registrations. BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene which is proved to be mutated in many cancer types. Limited studies tried to screen its mutation in cancer colon.

Aim: This work is aimed to screen BRCA1 mutations using C-terminal antibody in sporadic non familial colonic carcinoma.

Subjects and Methods: Fifty colectomy specimens were collected. Sections of paraffin blocks were cut (μm thickness), then stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and evaluated for tumor type and its nuclear grade and its stage. Immunohistochemical studies for BRCA1 were performed.

Results: positive nuclear immunostaining of BRCA1 staining was detected in 84% of the cases, with insignificant correlation with both the grade and the stage p ~ 0.42, p ~ 0.31 respectively.

Conclusion: This type of staining denies a direct role of BRCA1 axon 11 mutations in sporadic colonic cancer - unlike some sporadic ovarian and breast cancers - and may point to that BRCA1 may share in the early tumorogenesis in a way other than the usual mutation of exon 11.