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Open access

Ebada Said, Waleed El Agawy, Rehab Ahmed, Mohamed Hassany, Amal Ahmed, Hanan Fouad and Hosam Baiumy


Background and Objectives

According to the demographic health survey conducted in 2015, Egypt had 10% documented prevalence of anti-HBc positive patients aged 1-59 and 1% viremic patients amongst the population in the same age group, with a domination of genotype D. Several studies claimed the possible role of vitamin D deficiency in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease progression.

Patients and Methods

Serum vitamin D levels [25(OH D3] were assessed in 96 HBeAg negative non-cirrhotic chronic HBV patients and 25 healthy subjects classified as following: Group I: 48 chronic HBV patients with persistently normal ALT levels and HBV DNA level < 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; Group II: 48 chronic HBV patients with CHB with persistently elevated ALT and HBV DNA level ≥ 2000 IU/mL for ≥ 6 months; and Group III: 25 apparently healthy subjects with normal liver enzymes and negative hepatitis viral markers were taken as the control group.


Vitamin D was much more deficient in group II than in group I and group III being 11.55 ± 3.97 ng/mL, 15.03 ± 3.45, 27.00 ± 6.76 ng/mL (P < 0.001), respectively, and a strong negative correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and HBV DNA levels (P = 0.043) in groups I and II.


The current study showed high HBV DNA replication in patients with vitamin D deficiency suggesting the antimicrobial immunomodulatory role of vitamin D.

Open access

Naguib Zohir, Reham Afifi, Asmaa Ahmed, Zinab Aly, Mehry Elsobekey, Heba Kareem and Rehab Helmy


Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy is conditioned by environmental and genetic factors. Objectives: To verify the effect of the calumenin, cytochrome P-450 variants and VKORC1 genetic polymorphisms on the response to warfarin therapy and warfarin dose adjustment.

Patients and Methods: We selected fifty warfarin treated patients with dose adjusted at INR value between 2 and 3. PCR-RFLP is used for of calumenin gene polymorphism. Insitu Hybridization was used for identification of VKORC1 promoter and CYP2C9 variants polymorphisms.

Results: The warfarin dose in the patients with Calumenin and CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism was lower than the wild type gene. The warfarin dose in the patients with VKORC1 variants was statistically lower compared to that of the wild-type. The presence of combined CYP2C9 genetic variants and VKORC1 polymorphism was associated with lower warfarin dose than that the wild types.

Conclusion: Calumenin (CALU) might be a new genetic factor involved in the pharmacogenetics of anticoagulant therapy.