Cereals and legumes offer many nutritional benefits, and should therefore be consumed widely. In particular, legume consumption is very low in northern countries. Although many species of cereals, pseudocereals and legumes are available for human nutrition, today only a limited range of them is used in larger amounts. Wheat, rice and maize are dominating the cereal sector and beans, chickpeas and peas are the most produced legumes. Specialty cereals (e.g., colored varieties), pseudocereals (amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat) and legumes show great potential for the development of new food products due to their good nutritional composition and different functional properties.