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Ravinder Singh

Abstract

This paper reviews pain, social and physical, and its suffering in and beyond the body. It has reviewed evidences for neuro-chemical and neural overlap between social and physical pain. It also explores the consequences of this overlap followed by the sociocultural aspects of pain through an anthropological lens. This is an anthropological exploration of pain for the benefit of the understanding of our clinicians about human pain and suffering beyond the body in their local world.

Open access

Lokesh Jain, Harish Kumar, Ravinder Kumar Singla, Pritpal Singh and Jagjeet Singh Lore

Abstract

A dynamic fuzzy rule promotion approach for the promotion of a confidence factor of a rule for every successful session in diagnosis of a disease in crops by using the specific rules, has already been proposed in literature. This technique has the limitation that an error in the initial estimation of weights reduces linearly after every session the rule is being used. In this paper an improved approach has been proposed using the square root of sum of squares of frequencies, which are spread around the mean true value to reduce the error around a mean value. A rule set for the diseases and their symptoms for the paddy plant has been provided to make comparison between the previous and the improved approach. It has been shown that the improved approach decreases the error in uncertainty of estimation of weight for rules after every successful session. It has also been proposed that the improved approach must be applied in agricultural information dissemination system.