In this work, jagged spherical CdS nanocrystals have been synthesized by chemical method to study their elastic properties. The synthesized CdS nanocrystal has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The transmission electron microscope images show that the average size of the nanocrystal is 100 nm approximately. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirms that the CdS nanocrystals are in cubic zinc blende structure. The size calculated from the XRD is consistent with the average size obtained from the TEM analysis. The XRD data have been analyzed to study the elastic properties of the jagged spherical CdS nanocrystals, such as intrinsic strain, stress and energy density, usingWilliamson- Hall plot method.Williamson-Hall method and size-strain plot (SSP) have been used to study the individual effect of crystalline size and lattice strain on the peak broadening of the jagged spherical CdS nanocrystals. Size-strain plot (SSP) and root mean square (RMS) strain further confirm the results obtained from W-H plots.
The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of the agrochemical Almix on comparative basis in gill, liver and kidney of Heteropneustes fossilis through histological and ultrastructural observations under field (8 g/acre) and laboratory (66.67 mg/L) conditions. Exposure duration of both experiments was 30 days. Gill showed atrophy in secondary lamellae, hypertrophied gill epithelium, damage in chloride and pillar cells, and detachment of chloride cells from gill epithelium under laboratory condition, but hypertrophy in gill epithelium and fusion in secondary lamellae were seen under field condition. In gill, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed fragmentation in microridges, hyper-secretion of mucus and loss of normal array in microridges, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed dilated mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), abnormal sized vacuolation in chloride cells under laboratory condition. In liver, hypertrophied and pyknotic nuclei, disarrangement of hepatic cords, and cytoplasmic vacuolation were prominent under laboratory study but in field condition the liver showed little alterations. TEM study showed severe degeneration in RER and mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuolation under laboratory condition but dilated mitochondria were prominent in field observation. Kidney showed severe nephropathic effects including degenerative changes in proximal and distal convolute tubule, damage in glomerulus under light microscopy, while deformity in nucleus, fragmentation in RER, severe vacuolation and necrosis in kidney were prominent under TEM study. The results clearly demonstrated that responses were more prominent in laboratory than field study. Thus the responses displayed by different tissues of concerned fish species exposed to Almix could be considered as indications of herbicide toxicity in aquatic ecosystem.