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  • Author: Ranko Mladina x
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BACKGROUND. Crista galli is an anatomical structure localized in the midline, that derives from the ethmoid bone, with a compact bone structure, sometimes pneumatized. The connection between the pneumatized crista galli and the adjacent paranasal structures is usually performed through an opening similar with a sinusal ostium.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a retrospective clinical study about the incidence of the pneumatization of crista galli in 196 patients with chronic sinusitis. We evaluated the degree of pneumatization and the drainage pathways of crista galli, trying to correlate the radiological findings with the symptomatology of the patients with crista galli “sinusitis”.

RESULTS. Pneumatization of crista galli was found in 30.1% of cases. From 59 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and pneumatized crista galli, 66.4% had no opacification, 23.7% various degrees of opacification and 11.9% showed complete opacification. The presence of an opening of the pneumatized crista galli into surrounding air-cells was found in 16.98% of the patients. Headache was encountered in 76.2% of the patients with CRS and pneumatized crista galli sinusitis.

CONCLUSION. When analyzing a CT scan of a patient with CRS, we should also take into consideration the pneumatization of crista galli, which has a high variability. Most of the patients included in our study had also a certain degree of opacification of the pneumatized crista galli. Headache had a higher incidence in patients with crista galli inflammation than in CRS patients who showed no pneumatization or opacification of the crista galli (76.2% versus 60.5% in “simple” CRS patients).


OBJECTIVES. We reviewed the foreign aspects in nasal septal deformities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Mladina classification of the nasal septal deformities was used.

RESULTS. Types 5 and 6 have been dominantly inherited. The mechanism of the onset and possible connection to the trauma against the nose, as well as clinical implications of the remaining four types of the nasal septal deformities, have been explained and described in detail, giving the court expert witnesses the excellent opportunity to make a reliable and valuable finding.

CONCLUSION. Type 5 and type 6 nasal septal deformities are never the consequence of the trauma against the nose. In most of the cases, this also concerns type 3. This type as well as type 7 require the latero-lateral and anterior-posterior X-rays of the nasal bones in cases when the nasal pyramid is concurrently deformed. Types 1 and 2 in most of the cases are connected to trauma against the nose.


OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this article is to highlight some terms which have been ingrained in the rhinosinusology literature.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. It regards the term “accessory ostium” and the term “septal deviation”. The well-known and deeply ingrained term “accessory ostium” has been widely used for decades, but essentially it is absolutely incorrect. “Septal deviation” is an inadequate term for the changes of the nasal septum form.

RESULTS. From the linguistic point of view, “accessory” means something (or someone) which (or who) helps someone or gives support (to something or someone) in some process. We recommend the use of the term “defect of the fontanel” instead of “accessory ostium”. The use of the term “septal deformity” (from Latin: de forma, meaning the change in the shape) is etymologically much more appropriate. Septal deformities appear in man in several, well defined shapes and, therefore, can be correctly classified. The classification contributes to the further scientific conversations regarding the clinical issues connected to the changes of the nasal septum form.

CONCLUSION. The usual term “accessory ostium” suggests almost a normal finding on the lateral nasal wall, but, on the contrary, it clearly signalizes that the respective maxillary sinus is chronically inflamed. The usual term “septal deviation” is not at all specific and only suggests that something is wrong with the position of the nasal septum. It does not at all imply any of the six well known types of septal deformities in man.