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  • Author: Ramune Kasperavičienė x
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The translation of elements of formulaic language is extremely difficult in subtitles or voice-over due to time and space constraints. Besides, it is very difficult to provide a comprehensive definition of formulaic language as its sequences exist in so many forms. Traditionally, 6 basic formulas are distinguished: polywords, phrasal constraints, meta-messages, sentence builders, situational utterances, and verbatim texts. The analysis of subtitles and a voice-over version of a film shows that differences in the procedures applied for the translation of formulaic language are insignificant, and the strategies used are distributed almost evenly between preservation of content, transformation and localisation.


For several decades, there has been a heated debate about the value of providing corrective feedback in writing assignments in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. Despite the fact that corrective feedback in writing has been analysed from various angles, learners’ expectations regarding feedback given by language instructors are still to be considered, especially in different learning settings. Student attitudes have been found to be associated with motivation, proficiency, learner anxiety, autonomous learning, etc. (Elwood & Bode, 2014). Thus, the aim of this paper was to compare EFL learners’ attitudes towards corrective feedback and self-evaluation of writing skills in different learning settings. Students at two technological universities in France and Lithuania were surveyed and asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire combining the Likert scale and rank order questions. The results indicate that frequency of writing assignments seems to have little or no impact on students’ self-evaluation of writing skills. Moreover, although the two groups of students showed preference for feedback on different error types (e.g., feedback on structure vs. feedback on grammar), nevertheless, indirect corrective feedback with a clue was favoured by all the respondents.

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There are no doubts that the interconnections between translation competence and revision competence are constantly increasing and contribute to better coherence of the translated product. Other-revision may be developed and made use of as a competence on its own. Self-revision is always part of translation competence.

The study is based on students’ attitudes towards self-revision and other-revision. Before starting the revision training in practical translation courses, a survey was conducted to determine students’ attitudes towards the process of revision, the benefits of self- and other-revision training and the forms of such training thereof. The study also followed a research design where a semi-structured interview protocol was employed to find out the students’ attitudes to self-revision and other revision competences including possible modifications to be made in the translated text and skills required. The findings reveal students’ opinions and experiences acquired in translation courses at a higher education institution in terms of the revision process and student attitudes prevailing.

Studying these questions may provide helpful theoretical and practical implications about the use and benefit of revision-related activities in translation classes.