Influence of Nano Aluminium Powder Produced by Wire Explosion Process at Different Ambience on Hydrogen Generation
Nano-aluminium particles are produced through the wire explosion process in different gas medium. The particles produced by wire explosion process, in helium medium are of smaller size compared to argon/nitrogen medium. The nano aluminium powder on reaction with water forms oxides having bayerite and boehmite structure. It is observed that nano aluminium on reaction with KOH solution at room temperature it forms bayerite. The results of the study were confirmed through Wide Angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) studies. The reaction of nano aluminium powder with KOH solution/water indicates that the rate of hydrogen generation is high when nano aluminium powder reacts with KOH solution than with water. The rate of hydrogen generation gets reduced drastically when the nano aluminium powder which is exposed to air medium for some period is used for reaction with KOH/water. It is also observed that the rate of hydrogen generation is high with nano size aluminium particles compared with ultrafine particles.
A major cause for failure of underground cables is due to formation of electrical trees in the cable insulation. A variety of tree structure can form from a defect site in cable insulation viz bush-type trees, tree-like trees, fibrillar type trees, intrinsic type, depending on the applied voltage. Weibull studies indicate that a higher applied voltage enhances the rate of tree propagation thereby reducing the life of cable insulation. Measurements of injected current during tree propagation indicates that the rise time and fall time of the signal is of few nano seconds. In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify the partial discharges caused due to inception and propagation of electrical trees adopting UHF technique. It is realized that UHF signal generated during tree growth have signal bandwidth in the range of 0.5-2.0 GHz. The formation of streamer type discharge and Townsend type discharges during tree inception and propagation alters the shape of the tree formed. The UHF signal generated due to partial discharges formed during tree growth were analyzed adopting Ternary plot, which can allow one to classify the shape of tree structure formed.