Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents the second most prevalent malignancy among males, which is characterized by a high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to evaluate the methylation status of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) in urine specimens from males with PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its usefulness in distinguishing between males with PCa and BPH by noninvasive methods.
Methods: Voided urine specimens were collected from 65 patients with PCa and 45 patients with BPH. Genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to bisulfite modification. Methylation status of the GSTP1 gene was determined by conventional methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) analysis.
Results: Promoter hypermethylation of the GSTP1 gene in voided urine samples was found in 63 of 65 (97%) males with PCa and in 5 of 45 (11%) males with BPH. The sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 in discriminating between PCa and BPH males were 98% and 89%, respectively.
Conclusions: Gene analysis of GSTP1 using conventional MSP in urine specimens can be used as a noninvasive biomarker to distinguish between men with malignant and benign prostatic diseases.
Increased levels of homocysteine (HCYS) represent a risk factor for a series of physiopathological conditions: mental retardation, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, depression, osteoporosis, endothelial dysfunction and inhibition of cell proliferation. This paper aims to present the pathophysiological implications of HCYS and the correlation of hyperhomocysteinemia (H-HCYS) with critical condition in the intensive care unit (ICU). Hypovitaminosis B and folate deficiency is directly involved in the inhibition of HCYS metabolism and the accumulation of HCYS in the plasma and tissues. Critically ill patients are more prone to H-HCYS due to hypermetabolism and accelerated synthesis produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion it can be affirmed that the determination and monitoring of HCYS plasma levels may be of interest in optimizing the therapy for critically ill patients. Moreover, by controlling HCYS levels, and implicitly the essential cofactors that intervene in the specific biochemical pathways, such as vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid can provide a diversified and personalized treatment for each patient.
The current practice in the field of forensic medicine imposes the use of modern investigation techniques. The complexity of laboratory investigation methods needed for a final result of the investigation in forensic medicine needed new biomarkers of higher specificity and selectivity. Such biomarkers are the microRNAs (miRNAs), short, non-coding RNAs composed of 19–24 nucleotides. Their characteristics, such as high stability, selectivity, and specificity for biological fluids, differ from tissue to tissue and for certain pathologies, turning them into the ideal candidate for laboratory techniques used in forensic medicine. In this paper, we wish to highlight the biochemical properties and the usefulness of miRNAs in forensic medicine.