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  • Author: Raluca Constantin x
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Abstract

Introduction: Indication of primary pelvic exenteration, without previous radiotherapy, is questionable in advanced stages of gynaecological malignancies.

Materials and Methods: 24 patients who underwent primary pelvic exenteration for pelvic malignancies were studied retrospectively. The indications were cervical (n=17), vaginal (n=4), bladder (n=2) and endometrial cancer (n=1).

Results: According to the type of exenteration, 14 were anterior and 10 total. Relying on the resection lines in relation with levator ani muscles, 14 were supralevatorial and 10 infralevatorial, of which five involved vulvectomy. Early complications occurred in 7 patients with 1 perioperative death.

Conclusions: Primary pelvic exenterantion as first line therapy for advanced gynaecological malignancies can lead to long-term survival and it can even be curative in suitable selected patients. Still, postoperative complications are frequent, which can be lethal.

Abstract

Introduction. The treatment of neoplasia has advanced due to targeted molecular therapies. Erlotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that acts by blocking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used to treat advanced or metastatic chemotherapy-resistant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).

Erlotinib is a safe and well tolerated medication. Although the most common adverse effects are cutaneous or gastrointestinal, its cardiotoxicity is an important topic in the treatment and follow-up of neoplastic patients.

Clinical case. A 76-year-old male patient with 40 Pack Year history of smoking that has quitted 20 years ago, was admitted in 2009 for night sweats, dry cough and weight loss. He is diagnosed with lung cancer in the right upper lobe (T4N2M1), with the histopathological diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma. The patient performs radiotherapy and chemotherapy with 6 series of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin with partial response, followed by Erlotinib treatment with favorable progression with regression of tumor size.

In December 2017, he presents recurrent episodes of atypical angina lasting about 2 weeks. The electrocardiographic examination reveals ST segment elevation, with tall T waves and Q waves are present in the lower branches, associated with the increase of myocardial necrosis enzymes. Echocardiography highlights inferior hypokinesia with left ventricle ejection rate estimated at 45%. The patient has a favorable evolution during admission without recurrence of pain. Coronary angiography is performed at distance with evidence of vascular atherosclerotic lesions and the installation of active pharmacodynamic stents.

Discussions. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be the cause of acute coronary events both by affecting myocardiocytes following EGFR inhibition, but also by increasing atheromatic plaque instability and by prolonging theQT segment.

In conclusion a systemic cardiologic assessment of Erlotinib-treated patients may be recommended throughout the course of therapy.

Abstract

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a group of inflammatory interstitial lung diseases caused by hypersensitivity immune reactions to the inhalation of various antigens: fungal, bacterial, animal protein, or chemical sources, finely dispersed, with aerodynamic diameter <5μ, representing the respirable fraction. The national register for interstitial lung diseases records very few cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsec allergic alveolitis), a well defined occupational disease. Although not an eminently of occupational origin, the extrinsec allergic alveolitis can occur secondary to occupational exposure to organic substances (animal or insect proteins, bacteria, fungi) or inorganic (low molecular weight chemical compounds) and the occupational doctor is a key actor in the diagnosys. The disease has chronic evolution and exposure avoidance, as early as possible, has major prognostic influence. The occupational anamnesis remains the most important step and the occupational physician is the one in charge for monitoring and detection of the presence of respiratory symptoms in all employees with risk exposure. Next, we present the case of a farmer, without other comorbidities, who develops various respiratory and systemic diseases and manifestations due to repeated exposure to animal proteins and molds, in order to review the risk factors and the consequences of exposure in poultry farms.

Abstract

The definition of COVID-19 as occupational disease follows the investigation of any other occupational disease caused by an infectious agent. The risk is not equal for all occupations and the occupational physician has to assess the working conditions to conclude a diagnosis of occupational COVID-19. In the pandemic context, employees face also other occupational hazards. The high level of work load and the scarce resources lead to stress, physical and mental exhaustion and irregular sleep. The protection measures, of undisputable benefit, increase the risk for contact dermatitis. There is a high probability for medium and possible long term effects of COVID-19, such as the post-traumatic stress disorder or the respiratory sequelae. These consequences need to be acknowledged and properly manged by the medical team taking care of the patient. This review presents the main characteristics of the occupational related disorders during and after the current pandemia.

Abstract

Obesity is an epidemic disease, increasingly addressed through surgical options for weight loss. Benefits of these surgical procedures, such as weight loss and improvement of obesity-related co-morbidities, are well established. However, postoperative complications do occur. Deficiencies in micronutrients, which include water and fat-soluble vitamins and minerals, are common after bariatric surgery. Recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies is important to minimize long-term adverse effects.

Abstract

Objective: the number of alkaloids like morphine and codeine found in poppy seeds used in food industry are monitored by a directive given by European Food Safety Authority. Based on this regulation the aim of the study was to determine the quantity of morphine and codeine from several brands of poppy seeds. Methods: an HPLC-UV method (205 nm) was developed to measure the quantity of morphine and codeine. Sample preparation was made using recipes posted on Drugs Forum by some users. Limits of detection were not determined because the lowest concentration from the reference (0.1 μg/ml) detected morphine concentrations that are far lower than a limit of toxicological concern. Results: The concentrations, which were found, ranged between Below the Level of Toxicological Concern (BLTC) - 243.26 mg/kg for morphine and BLTC - 88.58 mg/kg for codeine using several methods of preparation. Conclusions: one can observe that there are some brands of poppy seeds which do not respect the regulation about the amount of morphine and codeine. The high amount of morphine in some samples suggests that there are different varieties of poppy seeds, which can be used for an illicit purpose and can lead to addiction or even overdose in some cases.