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  • Author: Rajko Kavalar x
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Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. Case report and review of the literature

Abstract

Background. Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) are rare tumours. They are mostly benign. Only around 12% of them are malignant. In the initial stage they are mostly asymptomatic and by growing they cause chest pain, irritating cough and dyspnoea on account of the pressure created on the surrounding structures. Rare giant tumours have compression symptoms on the mediastinal structures. The condition requires tiered diagnostic radiology. Preoperative biopsy is not successful in most cases. The therapy of choice is radical surgical tumour removal. Malignant or non-radically removed benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura additionally require neoadjuvant therapy.

Case report. A 68-year old patient was hospitalized for giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura in the right pleural cavity. With its expansive growth the tumour caused the shift of the mediastinum by compressing the lower vena cava, right cardiac auricle as well as the intermediate and lower lobe bronchus. Due to cardiac inflow obstruction and right lung collapse, the patient’s life was endangered with signs of cardio-respiratory failure. After preoperative diagnostic radiology, the tumour was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition improved. No disease recurrence was diagnosed after a year.

Conclusions. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura may cause serious and life-threatening conditions by causing compression of the pleural cavity with its expansive growth. Early diagnosis of the condition enables less aggressive as well as video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients with significantly better state of health. Large tumour surgeries in cardio-respiratory affected patients are highly risk-associated procedures.

Open access
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes MACC1, RAD18, MMP7 and SDF-1a as prognostic factors in resectable colorectal cancer

Abstract

Background

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Research has indicated that functional gene changes such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) influence carcinogenesis and metastasis and might have an influence on disease relapse. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of SNPs in selected genes as prognostic markers in resectable CRC.

Patients and methods

In total, 163 consecutive patients treated surgically for CRC of stages I, II and III at the University Medical Centre in Maribor in 2007 and 2008 were investigated. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CRC tissue from the Department of Pathology and SNPs in genes SDF-1a, MMP7, RAD18 and MACC1 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction followed by high resolution melting curve analysis or restriction fragment length polymorphism.

Results

We found worse disease-free survival (DFS) for patients with TT genotype of SNP rs1990172 in gene MACC1 (p = 0.029). Next, we found worse DFS for patients with GG genotype for SNP rs373572 in gene RAD18 (p = 0.020). Higher frequency of genotype GG of MMP7 SNP rs11568818 was found in patients with T3/T4 stage (p = 0.014), N1/N2 stage (p = 0.041) and with lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.018). For MACC1 rs1990172 SNP we found higher frequency of genotype TT in patients with T3/T4 staging (p = 0.024). Higher frequency of genotype GG of RAD18 rs373572 was also found in patients with T1/T2 stage with disease relapse (p = 0.041).

Conclusions

Our results indicate the role of SNPs as prognostic factors in resectable CRC.

Open access
The influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the risk of developing gastric cancer in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection

Abstract

Background. Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastric cancer. The disease progression is influenced by the host inflammatory responses, and cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may have a role in the course of the disease. The aim of our study was to investigate proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms, previously associated with the development of gastric cancer, in a Slovenian population.

Patients and methods. In total 318 patients and controls were selected for the study and divided into three groups: (i) patients with gastric cancer (n = 58), (ii) patients with chronic gastritis (n = 60) and (iii) healthy control group (n = 200). H. pylori infection in patient groups was determined by serology, histology and culture. Four proinflammatory gene polymorphisms were determined (IL-1β, IL-1rα, TNF-α, TLR-4) in all subjects.

Results. We found a statistically significant difference between males and females for the groups (p = 0.025). Odds ratio (OR) for gastric cancer risk for females was 0.557 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.233―1.329) and for chronic gastritis 2.073 (95% CI: 1.005―4.277). IL-1B-511*T/T homozygous allele for cancer group had OR = 2.349 (95% CI: 0.583―9.462), heterozygous IL-1B-511*T had OR = 1.470 (95% CI: 0.583―3.709) and heterozygotes in TNF-A-308 genotype for chronic gastritis had OR = 1.402 (95% CI: 0.626―3.139). Other alleles had OR less than 1.

Conclusions. We could not prove association between gastric cancer and chronic gastritis due to H. pylori in any cytokine SNPs studied in Slovenian population. Other SNPs might be responsible besides infection with H. pylori for the progression from atrophy to neoplastic transformation.

Open access
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in breast cancer - correlation with traditional prognostic factors

Abstract

Background. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) play a key role in tumour invasion and metastasis. High levels of both proteolytic enzymes are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between traditional prognostic factors and uPA and PAI-1 expression in primary tumour of breast cancer patients.

Patients and methods. 606 primary breast cancer patients were enrolled in the prospective study in the Department of gynaecological oncology and breast oncology at the University Medical Centre Maribor between the years 2004 and 2010. We evaluated the traditional prognostic factors (age, menopausal status, tumour size, pathohistological type, histologic grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion and hormone receptor status), together with uPA and PAI-1. We used Spearman’s rank correlation, Mann Whitney U test and χ2 test for statistical analysis.

Results. Our findings indicate a positive correlation between uPA and tumour size (p < 0.001), grade (p < 0.001), histological type (p < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.01) and a negative correlation between uPA and hormone receptor status (p < 0.001). They also indicate a positive correlation between PAI-1 and tumour size (p = 0.004), grade (p < 0.001), pathohistological type (p < 0.001) and negative correlation between PAI-1 and hormone receptor status (p = 0.002).

Conclusions. Our study showed a relationship between uPA and PAI-1 and traditional prognostic factors. Their role as prognostic and predictive factors remains to be further evaluated.

Open access
Randomised trial of HPV self-sampling among non-attenders in the Slovenian cervical screening programme ZORA: comparing three different screening approaches

Abstract

Background

To overcome obstacles within the Slovenian organised cervical cancer screening programme, a randomised pilot study of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling among non-attenders was performed, aiming to assess three different screening approaches.

Participants and methods

Non-attenders aged 30–64 years from two Slovenian regions were randomised to two HPV self-sampling groups–the opt-in (I1, n = 14.400) and the opt-out (I2, n = 9.556), with a control group (P, n = 2.600). Self-collected samples were analysed using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. HPV-positive women were invited to a colposcopy. The overall and type-specific intention-to-screen response rates and histological outcomes with a positive predictive value (PPV) according to the women’s age, the screening approach, the level of protection resulting from previous screening history, and the region of residence were assessed.

Results

Of the 26.556 women enrolled, 8.972 (33.8%) responded with self-sample for HPV testing and/or traditional cytology within one year of enrolment. Response rates were 37.7%, 34.0% and 18.4% (p < 0.050) for opt-out, opt-in and control groups. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ was diagnosed in 3.9/1.000, 3.4/1.000, and 3.1/1.000 women (p > 0.050), respectively. PPV of the HPV self-sampling was 12.0% and 9.6% for CIN2+ and CIN3+. The highest PPV was obtained in non-attenders in screening programme for more than 10-years and concordant results of HPV testing with 40.8% for CIN2+ and 38.8% for CIN3+.

Conclusions

The results of our study show that a high response to HPV self-sampling can be achieved also in an opt-in approach, if women are encouraged to choose between self-sampling at home and screening with gynaecologist. In addition, clinically important risk difference for a high-grade cervical lesion exists in the case of a positive result of HPV testing on self-collected samples, depending on the length of the interval since last screening. Stratified management of these women should be strongly considered. Women who were not screened with cytology for at least 10 years should be referred to immediate colposcopy for histology verification instead to delayed re-testing.

Open access