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Open access

Rafat Mohareb and Hanaa Hana

Synthesis of progesterone heterocyclic derivatives of potential antimicrobial activity

The aim of this work was to synthesize steroidal heterocycles and to elucidate the potential role of these compounds as antimicrobial agents. The synthesis of steroidal heterocycles containing the pyrazole, isoxazole, thiazole, pyrane, pyridine, pyridazine, or benzopyrane ring attached to the pregnene nucleus is reported. Progesterone (1) reacts with dimethyl formamide dimethyl acetal to form enamine 2. Heterocyclization of 2 with hydrazines, hydroxylamine, glycine, ethyl acetoacetate or cyanomethylene afforded novel steroidal heterocyclic derivatives. The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation showed that all synthesized compounds show activity against the used strains of Gram positive bacteria and fungi.

Open access

Rafat Mohareb and Hosam Moustafa

Use of 2-aminoprop-1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile for the synthesis of tetrahydronaphthalene, hexahydroisoquinoline and hexahydrocinnoline derivatives with potential antitumor activities

The aim of the work was to synthesize heterocyclic compounds from 2-aminoprop-1-ene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile and to study their antitumor activities. The title reagent reacted with cyclohexanone to give the ethylidene derivative 2. The reactivity of the latter product towards different chemical reagents was studied to give tetrahydronaphthalene, hexahydroisoquinoline and hexahydrocinnoline derivatives. The newly synthesized products were screened as antitumor agents on the in vitro growth of three human tumor cell lines representing different tumor types, namely, breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460) and CNS cancer (SF-268). It was found that some of these compounds showed inhibitory effects on the three cell lines, indicating their potential use in the development of oncology products.

Open access

Rafat Mohareb, Karam El-Sharkawy and Sherif Sherif

The reaction of β-amino-α,γ-dicyanocrotononitrile with acetophenone: Synthesis of pyridine, pyridazine and thiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activities

Condensation of β-amino-α,γ-dicyanocrotononitrile (1) with acetophenone gave 2-amino-4-phenylpenta-1,3-diene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile (2). The latter product was used in a series of heterocyclization reactions with different reagents such as diazonium salts, hydrazines, hydroxylamines and elemental sulfur to give pyridazine, pyrazole, isoxazole and thiophene derivatives, respectively. On the other hand, it gave pyridine derivatives with aromatic aldehydes folowed by reaction with cyanomethylene reagents. The MIC values for the newly synthesized product were measured against E. coli, B. cereus, B. subtilis and C. albicans.

Open access

Rafat M. Mohareb, Amira E. M. Abdallah, Maher H. E. Helal and Somiya M. H. Shaloof

Abstract

Attempting to produce cyclized systems with potential anti-proliferative activity, a series of novel thiophene and benzothiophene derivatives were designed and synthesized. The reactivity of the latter derivatives towards different chemical reagents was studied. Twenty-one compounds were synthesized and evaluated as anti-cancer agents. The results showed that ethyl 5-amino-3-(4-chlorostyryl)-4-cyanothiophene-2-carboxylate (5b), ethyl 5-amino-4-((4-methoxyphenyl)carbonyl)-3-methylhiophene-2-carboxylate (8c) and 5-3-(ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)-3-methyl-4-(phenylcarbamoyl)thiophene-2-carboxylate (9) were the most active compounds towards three tumor cell lines – MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SF-268 (CNS cancer) and a normal fibro-blast human cell line (WI-38) compared to the anti-proliferative effects of the reference control doxorubicin.

Open access

Wagnat Wahba Wardakhan, El-Sayed Nahed Nasser Eid and Rafat Milad Mohareb

The reaction of cyclopentanone with cyanoacetylhydrazine gave 2-cyano-2-cyclopentylideneacetohydrazide (1). Treatment of compound 1 with elemental sulphur in the presence of triethylamine afforded 2-amino-5,6-dihydro- -4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carbohydrazide (2), which in-turn formed the corresponding intermediate diazonium salt. The latter was coupled with either ethyl cyanoacetate or ethyl acetoacetate to form 2-cyano-2-(3-(hydrazinecarbonyl)- 5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)hydrazono) acetate (3) and ethyl 2-(2-(3-(hydrazinecarbonyl)-5,6-dihydro- 4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)hydrazono)-3-oxobutanoate (4), respectively. On the other hand, the reaction of compound 1 with either benzaldehyde or acetophenone afforded N’-benzylidene-2-cyano-2-cyclopentylideneacetohydrazide (7) and 2-cyano-2-(2-cyclopentylidene)phenylacetohydrazide (10), respectively. Moreover, compound 1 was used to synthesize 2-cyano-2-cyclopentylidene- N'-(arylthiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)acetohydrazides (6a,b), 2-(2-benzylidenecyclopentylidene)-2-cyanoacetohydrazide (8), 2-amino-N'-benzylidene-5,6-dihydro-4H- -cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carbohydrazide (9), 2-cyano- -2-(2-(2-phenylhydrazono)cyclopentylidene)acetohydrazide (11), N'-(1-chloropropan-2-ylidene)-2-cyano-2-cyclopentylideneacetohydrazide (12), and 2-cyclopentylidene-3- -(3,5-disubstituted-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3-oxopropanenitriles (13a,b) through its reaction with the respective reagents. Antitumor evaluation of the newly synthesized compounds against the three human tumor cells lines, namely, breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460) and CNS cancer (SF-268) showed that some of the described compounds exhibited higher inhibitory effects towards the three tumor cell lines than the reference compound doxorubicin.

Open access

Rafat M. Mohareb, Amira E. M. Abdallah and Ebtsam A. Ahmed

Abstract

Reactivity of 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3- carbonitrile towards thioglycolic acid resulted in thiazole derivative 1. The latter reacted with different chemical reagents to give thiazole, pyrano[2,3-d]thiazole and thiazolo[ 4,5-d]thiazole derivatives. Cytotoxicity effects of the newly synthesized products against six cancer cell lines, namely, human gastric cancer (NUGC), human colon cancer (DLD- 1), human liver cancer (HA22T and HEPG-2), human breast cancer (MCF) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (HONE-1) as well as against a normal fibroblast cell (WI-38) were evaluated. The study showed that the 4,5,6,7 tetrahydrobenzo[ b] thiophene derivatives 6a, 7, 8a,b, 9b and 10b,c w ere t he most active compounds. Their potencies were attributed to the presence of the electron withdrawing groups.