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  • Author: Rafael Timon x
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Urinary Steroid Profile in Ironman Triathletes

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine variations in the urinary steroid profile of triathletes following an Ironman event. A total of 10 male participants (age = 36.0 ± 1.27 years; body height = 179.29 ± 10.77 cm; body mass = 74.50 ± 1.04 kg) completed an Ironman Championship. Urine samples were collected before, immediately after, and 24 hours following the race. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to detect and quantify catabolic and anabolic hormones: Androsterone, Dehydroepiandrosteone (DHEA), Androstenedione and Testosterone (T), Betaestradiol, Estrone, Progesterone, Cortisol (C), Cortisone, Tetrahydrocortisol (THE) and Tetrahydrocortisone (THF). These were measured in their glucuroconjugated and free forms. Androsterone (3297.80 ± 756.83 vs. 2154.26 ± 1375.38), DHEA (47.80 ± 19.21 vs. 32.62 ± 15.96) and Beta-estradiol (59.36 ± 11.7 vs. 41.67 ± 10.59) levels decreased after the event. The significant decrease of DHEA (47.80 ± 19.21 vs. 32.11 ± 14.03) remained at 24 hours. Cortisol (200.38 ± 56.60 vs. 257.10 ± 74.00) and THE (238.65 ± 81.55 vs. 289.62 ± 77.13) increased after exercise and remained elevated 24 hours later (200.38 ± 56.60 vs. 252.48 ± 62.09; 238.65 ± 81.55 vs. 284.20 ± 66.66). The following anabolic/catabolic ratios fell after exercise: T/C (0.85 ± 0.54 vs. 0.54 ± 0.29), T/THE (0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.40 ± 0.08), T/THE+THF (0.38 ± 0.17 vs. 0.24 ± 0.06), DHEA/THE (0.22 ± 0.05 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05), DHEA/THF (0.34 ± 0.02 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01) and DHEA/THE+THF (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.03). The steroid profile showed that athletes were fatigued after finishing the competition and a catabolic state remained 24 hours later.

Open access
Post-Activation Potentiation on Squat Jump Following Two Different Protocols: Traditional vs. Inertial Flywheel

Abstract

Post‐activation potentiation (PAP) has been defined as a major enhancement of muscular performance following a preload stimulus. The eccentric actions seem to cause a potentiating effect on subsequent explosive exercises. The aim of this study was to determine whether a protocol of squat exercise using an inertial flywheel could have a potentiating effect on jump performance. Sixteen physically active volunteers participated in the study (age: 21.8 ± 2.7 years; body mass index: 23.6 ± 3). All participants completed two different protocols on separate days: a Traditional Protocol (using a half squat with a guided barbell) and an Inertial Flywheel Protocol (using a half squat with an inertial flywheel). Both protocols were similar and consisted of 3 x 6 reps at the load that maximized power, with a 3‐minute rest interval between sets. The squat jump (SJ) was measured by a contact platform at baseline, and four, eight and twelve minutes after the PAP stimulus. A two‐way ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to analyze significant differences over time. There were significant increases of SJ height (p = 0.004, d = 0.665), velocity (p = 0.003, d = 0.688) and power (p = 0.004, d = 0.682) from baseline after the inertial flywheel protocol. A significant interaction effect (time x protocol) was observed, showing that the inertial flywheel protocol had a potentiating effect on the jump performance compared to the traditional protocol, more specifically at 4 and 8 minutes after the PAP stimulus. In conclusion, the inertial flywheel protocol showed a potentiating effect on the squat jump performance, thus this pre‐ conditioning activity could be useful during the warm‐up before the competition.

Open access