Introduction: Smoking is a huge medical and social problem in Poland, with as many as about 24% of Poles being addicted to nicotine. Approximately 6 million people worldwide die every year from conditions that are closely related to tobacco addiction, such as cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic or lung diseases. The difficulty in combatting nicotine dependence is largely due to the complex mechanism of this addiction. The motivation of a patient to quit smoking is of great importance in the difficult withdrawal process. Strengthening this motivation is one of the most important tasks of physicians and addiction therapists.
Overview of literature: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been the most widely known way to break away from smoking addiction for many years now. It involves delivering nicotine to the body in ways that are less harmful than through tobacco smoke. As a consequence, the cravings for nicotine are reduced, making it easier for the patient to break with the addiction. Clinical trials have shown that the use of NRT is associated with a 50-70% increased chance of maintaining abstinence from smoking compared to placebo. There are many NRT products, including nicotine chewing gum, nicotine patches, lozenges, dissolvable nicotine sticks, or inhalers. Bupropion is a selective dopamine–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. This drug is one of the most commonly used in the pharmacotherapy of depression in the United States. At the same time, it has been found to have a positive effect on people trying to break up with the habit of smoking cigarettes. The mechanism of action remains unknown in this case, but studies clearly indicate the efficacy of bupropion, which is comparable to the efficacy of NRT. Varenicline is a partial agonist selective for α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It has a higher affinity for these receptors than nicotine. By stimulating them, it causes an increase in dopamine secretion (but to a lesser extent than cigarette smoking), helping in this way ease withdrawal symptoms.
Conclusions: Varenicline has higher efficacy than bupropion and NRTs. Simultaneous use of two NRT forms increases the effectiveness of this method to a level comparable to varenicline. Contrary to previous reports, it seems that varenicline does not increase self-aggressive behaviour and the risk of suicide. The effectiveness of antinicotinic drugs depends on the sex of the patient. For both sexes, the most effective drug is varenicline. It is slightly more effective in women than in men. By contrast, NRT and bupropion show greater therapeutic potential in men.
Rzeszów is one of the best developing cities in Poland. Once the small HQ of a principality - due to complicated historical conditioning - it has now become a place where an increasing number of people choose to live. The city with its bursting life, streets and squares starts and ends, however, in an area which only a few dozen years ago still catered for one fifth of the current population. The main reason for this phenomenon is the presence of spatial barriers, which significantly limit the development of the central urban area. This article analyzes the elements, which block the development of the north-central part of Rzeszów. An appropriate diagnosis of the problem may in the future allow the right actions in urban planning to be taken in order to cross these barriers. This may lead to the future development of areas with huge urbanization potential. Investments undertaken by city authorities to develop the northern peripheries of Rzeszów may trigger the development of the central district in this direction. This may occur as a result of concrete design interventions. The new part of the central district should have the scale and proportions of urban space that answer to the needs of a dynamically developing capital of the Podkarpacie region.
Faunistic review of Polish Platypodinae and Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Based on a survey of the literature and collections, the distributions of the Platypodinae and Scolytinae (Curculionidae) within the present-day borders of Poland are summarized. An updated and annotated checklist is given of Polish pinhole borers (1 genus, 1 species) and bark beetles (35 genera, 110 species). Carphoborus cholodkovskyi Spessivtsev has been removed from the list; the presence of Hylastinus obscurus (Marsham), Pteleobius kraatzii (Eichhoff), Pityophthorus exsculptus (Ratzeburg), Cryphalus saltuarius Weise, Thamnurgus kaltenbachii (Bach), T. varipes Eichhoff, Pityogenes irkutensis monacensis Fuchs, P. saalasi Eggers, Xyleborus eurygraphus (Ratzeburg) and X. pfeilii (Ratzeburg), reported by previous authors, needs to be confirmed by new findings. Pitophthorus carniolicus Wichmann, Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Crypturgus subcribrosus Eggers were recorded generally from Poland. Hylastes plumbeus Blandford, Phloeosinus aubei (Perris), Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch), Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), Scolytus sulcifrons Rey and Trypodendron laeve Eggers (Knížek 2011) were erroneously recorded from Poland.
The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the value of the oil pressing pressure with the cold pressing method in a screw press on the pressing course and performance. Varied values of pressure were obtained through the use of three replaceable attachments of the pressing unit with a varied diameter of the outlet conduit (ф1=2 mm, ф2=4 mm and ф3=6 mm). The soya oil pressing process performance was determined in relation to the applied attachment and the soya cultivar. Seeds of 7 Polish non-genetically modified soya cultivars constituted research material. It was proved that both variable pressure values and the used soya cultivars have impact on the pressing performance. Based on the analysis of the obtained research results it was proved that varied technical parameters and soya cultivars influence both the process performance and the remaining parameters and pressing conditions.