Spatial distribution and habitat preferences of 55 river corridor plant species were analyzed on a local scale in the valley of a medium-size regulated river. The analysis was based on the results of a detailed mapping on a 50 km-long section of the Lower San River valley (366 cartogram cells of 1 square km). Selected species were divided into two groups: (1) strictly and (2) loosely confined to river corridors. River corridor plants were found throughout the valley (river channel, active and historical floodplain, older terraces, slopes); however, their frequency was diverse in particular areas. The highest concentrations were observed on the floodplain. Their number decreased towards the border areas of the valley. Species which were less confined to rivers were found more frequently in the valley (one species occupied, on average, 12.9% of grid cells), than plants strictly confined to the river system (one species occupied, on average, 5.9% of grid cells); however, the ranges of species of the second group were more restricted to the Holocene part of the valley, especially to the floodplain. River corridor plants were, ecologically, a highly diversified group. In the San river valley, they were found in riparian forests, pioneer ephemeral communities on the banks of water bodies, dry grasslands, meadows and old river beds; a lot of them grew in ruderal habitats.
Vegetation data (70 relevés) of ephemeral wetlands collected in both permanent and temporal water basins were analyzed. Numerical classification of the data revealed two distinct subsets, the first comprised communities of Eleocharition ovatae Philippi 1968 alliance, the second combined communities dominated by Alisma lanceolatum, Isolepis supina or Elatine alsinastrum (Alisma lanceolatum group). Phytocoenoses of Eleocharition ovatae were widely distributed in the study area and developed, most frequently, on exposed bottoms of fishponds. This group could be divided into four types of communities. Patches representing Alisma lanceolatum group were found only in mid-field depressions periodically filled with water and concentrated in Volhynian Upland. In this group, two lower vegetation units were distinguished.
Dental anxiety is a very important factor affecting the efficacy of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental diseases, both in patients in the developmental age and in young adults. Anxiety is considered an emotional state with negative connotations. The aim of the study was to determine the level of dental anxiety in first year university students, the intent being to help to develop an individual treatment plan in this group of patients. The study involved 280 students including 230 females and 50 males. Of these, 122 patients were from the Medical University of Lublin, 79 from University of Life Sciences and 79 from University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska. The mean age of the study subjects was 21 years and 8 months ± 3,9 months. No differences in the level of dental anxiety between women and men were observed. The highest level of dental anxiety was observed among students of University of Life Sciences, while the lowest level was observed among students of the Medical University