The paper describes passion, which depending on the context, may motivate entrepreneurial leaders not only to found an organization, but also to grow and expand their ventures. It should also be noted that there is also the dark side of passion dominated by greed and hubris, which may result in counterproductive outcomes.
There is an analysis of the physico-chemical properties and the chemical composition of precipitation in a forest geoecosystem in acid immision conditions. The data used in the analysis was collected between 2000 and 2010. In that period, a drop in the immision scale of S-SO2 in the atmospheric air had been observed, which consequently was one of the reasons for a drop in the precipitation acidity. The conclusion was that rainwater, after penetrating treetops and trunks, undergoes a significant transformation whose intensity depends on species composition of the forest stand. Statistically relevant differences were found in coniferous stands, in which a substantial drop in pH was noted, in addition to an increase in the load of components accumulated in the soil in relation to atmospheric precipitation. The calculated indicators of the eco-chemical state of waters (Ma%) have revealed that throughfall waters in coniferous stands and fir and beech stemflow contain significant amounts of aluminium, manganese, iron and hydrogen ions in the sum of cations. Also the indicator of acid-neutralizing capacity (ANCaq) shows that these waters are more enriched with sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions than bulk precipitation. The recorded variation eventuates from processes related to dry and humid deposition, as well as ion-exchange processes occurring within the stand. The obtained results point to an intensification of chemical denudation within the trunks, triggering disadvantageous changes in both biotic and abiotic part of the ecosystem. The effects of the increased inflow of souring agents to the soil through stemflow are significant acidification of the top mineral soil horizon and an increase in the hydrolytic acidity.
Dry areas are especially exposed to the risk of water shortages and elevated mineralization. High water salinity, caused by low precipitation, high evaporation and human impact, usually strongly limits the use of the water for irrigation. The aim of the study was to assess the quality and irrigation purpose suitability of alluvial water in the Erfoud oasis, Morocco. The samples of water were collected from 20 wells in June 2017. We observed excessive concentrations of many parameters i.a.: NO3, Cd, Ni, Na, NH4, Cl, SO4, Fe, Cr. To determine the possibility to use the water for irrigation purposes, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (%Na), permeability index (PI), Kelly’s ratio (KR), magnesium hazards (MH) and electrical conductivity (EC) were assessed. The values of KR and MH qualified the waters as unsuitable for irrigation purposes. The observed %Na indicates that the groundwater is permissible for irrigation purposes, and permeability index, that it is of moderate quality. However, water classification using the SAR vs EC diagram confirms its high and very high alkali and salinity hazard. The mean EC value of the water was 9.5 mS cm−1.
Małgorzata Kijowska-Strugała, Łukasz Wiejaczka and Rafał Kozłowski
The aim of the analysis was to demonstrate the role of reservoirs in shaping nutrient content (nitrates NO3- and phosphates PO43- as well as ammonia NH4+) in the waters of mountain rivers. Three Carpathian rivers with reservoirs in their courses were selected for the study: the Ropa River (Klimkowka reservoir), the Dunajec River (the Czorsztyn-Sromowce Wyzne reservoir complex) and the Raba River (Dobczyce reservoir). The basic criteria for the selection of the study objects for the investigation were: similar hydrological regime of the rivers and diverse parameters and functions of the storage reservoirs. The analysis of nutrient concentration was based on a long-term series of measurements (2004-2013). The reservoirs investigated generally contribute to an increase in nitrates in the rivers flowing below the reservoirs in particular months. The role of reservoirs in shaping phosphate and ammonia levels was not as evident as in the case of nitrates. The reservoirs are merely one of numerous factors that contribute to nutrient levels in the water of the mountains rivers. In the light of the analysis of nutrient concentrations in the surface water tested, it may be concluded that the reservoirs do not cause a clear and permanent deterioration of river water quality.
Łukasz Wiejaczka, Paweł Prokop, Rafał Kozłowski and Subir Sarkar
The article presents the role of the newly built reservoir in the formation of the hydrochemistry of water of the Teesta River (a tributary of the Brahmaputra) in its Himalayan course. Field research were performed in the post-monsoon season of the period 2013-2015. Sampling and measuring points were located in five points over 43 km of the Teesta River in the Darjeeling Himalaya. Analysis of water along of river longitudinal profile above and below the reservoir suggest that the reservoir caused decrease most of the basic ions concentrations (Cl−, K+, Na+, Mg2+, NO3− and PO43−). An inverse trend was observed only with respect to Ca2+, SO42− and NH4+. The dam does not influent on the F− concentration. The reservoir causes minor enrichment most of the heavy metals such Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd and Sr. The lower enrichment of Teesta water below the dam indicates the water self-purification processes for metals by the Teesta Reservoir. The changes of physicochemical properties and concentrations of ions caused by the reservoir are usually normalised by environmental factors before the Teesta River outlet from the Himalayas (within 15 km of the river).
Maciej Dłużewski, Rafał Kozłowski and Anna Szczucińska
In arid zones, the availability of fresh water is usually very limited because of high salinity, which greatly limits their use for irrigation purposes. High mineralization of water used for irrigation leads to increased soil salinity. The aim of the study was to examine the potential use of alluvial groundwater for irrigation in arid zones. The works were conducted in the Middle Draa Valley in southern Morocco (the Mhamid Oasis) in October 2015. Water samples of alluvial groundwater were collected for laboratory analysis from 42 wells located in the oasis. In order to determine the possibility to use the water for irrigation purposes, the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (%Na), permeability index (PI), Kelly’s ratio (KR), magnesium hazards (MH) and electrical conductivity (EC) were assessed. EC values, exceeding 3000 μS·cm-1 in all the samples, classify the water as unsuitable for irrigation. MH and the KR indexes show that 30% of water samples represent levels making them unsuitable for irrigation. SAR confirms the very high degree of susceptibility of the analyzed waters to salinity hazard. The PI index of these waters is moderate, however in terms of sodium content they can be deemed suitable for irrigation purposes. It has been found that even within a small area of the oasis, a very large differentiation in the alluvial groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes occurs.
Małgorzata Rajfur, Paweł Krems, Andrzej Kłos, Rafał Kozłowski, Małgorzata A. Jóźwiak, Jan Kříž and Maria Wacławek
During the years 2014-2015, biomonitoring studies were carried out at three holding reservoirs located in Swietokrzyskie Province (central Poland): Kielce artificial lake, Chancza reservoir and Sielpia reservoir. In sea water algae Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr, exposed in the analysed waters, the increases of concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method (AAS), of the following: Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Conductivity and pH were also determined in the reservoirs waters. The differences between the increases of heavy metal concentrations in the samples of algae found along the coastline were indicated; they result from different distances from the pollution sources, such as resorts, communication routes and industrial plants.
Anna Szczucińska, Maciej Dłużewski, Rafał Kozłowski and Przemysław Niedzielski
In arid areas, with rivers functioning episodically, alluvial resources are the main source of water. Considering the intensified regulation of discharge in montane catchments, supplying the intermittent rivers, in the nearest future alluvial aquifers will gain key importance for the functioning of people in arid zones. The research aimed to investigate the diversified chemistry of alluvial waters typical of large intermittent river valleys in hot arid zones as well as to analyse processes determining the water chemistry and affecting its diversity. The detailed study, carried out in October 2015, covered the Draa river valley (1100 km total length) in the region of the Mhamid Oasis. The examined water was sampled from all wells found in the study area. Concentrations of the main cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NH4+, and Li+, anions: Cl−, SO42−, HCO3−, and NO3−, as well as trace elements: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn, were identified. Results were analysed with statistical, hydrochemical, and geochemical modelling methods. Alluvial waters of the eastern and western part of the oasis differed in concentrations of numerous components, what resulted from the regulation of irrigation. Specific electrical conductivity showed a 3.5-fold increase, from 3800 to 13800 μS/cm, consistent with the direction of water flow in the oasis, from east to west. Even a greater rise was observed for ions: Cl− (6x), Na+ (5.5x), Mg2+ (5.0x), Ca2+, and SO42− (3.5x). Such a composition indicated multiionic hydrochemical type of waters dominated by Na+ and Cl−. Additionally, high Pearson correlation coefficients were recorded for Na+ and Cl− (0.98) as well as Mg2+ and Cl− (0.97). The saturation index suggested that the main water components originated from dissolving of minerals such as halite, anhydrite, sylvite, and gypsum. Groundwater chemistry in the Mhamid Oasis was determined mainly by geogenic processes, such as dissolving of evaporates, precipitation of carbonate minerals, and ion exchange.