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Open access

Lucjan Guma, Marcin Przywarty and Rafał Gralak

Evaluation of Failure Probability of Ships on the Baltic Sea by Means of Simulation Model and Statistical Data

The ship technical failures contribution in overall number of navigational accidents are significantly smaller than those caused by human factor but in safety analysis they cannot be neglected. The paper presents stochastic modeling the technical failures of ships with respect of most important ship systems such as main engine, power generators and steering gear. The data for simulation was obtained from analysis of ships statistical data of polish owners. Obtained results could be useful for estimation of transport loses or potential environmental threats and planning the response action against them.

Open access

Arkadiusz Tomczak, Paweł Zalewski and Rafał Gralak


Modern Integrated Navigation Systems (INS) integrate information obtained from various sensors and functions. Processed data are presented on the computer display generally with the aim to increase navigator’s situation awareness and to reduce his/her workload. The investigations described in the paper were carried out to assess the advantages of the new functionality of the test INS (e-Navigation enhanced Integrated Navigation System ee-INS), developed in the EU financed EfficienSea Project, that looks and works like a standard ECDIS. This new functionality implements ‘Exchange of Intended Route’ service. The experiment was conducted in a full mission ship simulator environment with 20 experienced mariners. The bridge layout without ECDIS ‘Exchange of Intended Route’ functionality, and bridge layout with this functionality implemented, was applied in research and its results enabled to carry out their comparison. The navigators’ workload was measured by NASA-TLX method. Navigators’ situation awareness in respect to other ship’s state and the final passing distance were utilized to evaluate safety of navigation process.

Open access

Piotr Wołejsza, Janusz Magaj and Rafał Gralak


The known navigational systems in use and methods of navigational decision support perform information functions and as such are helpful in the process of safe conduct of a vessel. However, none of these known systems provides a navigator with ready solutions of collision situations taking account of all the vessels in the proximity of own ship, where the Collision Regulations apply. Another shortcoming of these systems is that they do not explain the assessment of a navigational situation and proposed manoeuvre parameters. Results of testing in simulation condition of NAVDEC - new Navigational Decision Supporting System developed by research team of prof. Pietrzykowski [Pietrzykowski et al., 2012a], [Pietrzykowski et al., 2012b] - were presented in this paper.

Open access

Kinga Drwięga, Lucjan Gucma and Rafał Gralak


The paper presents the methodology for determining the components which are related to heel of bulk carrier with one component excluded — the heel of vessel due to waves. The described method was applied to the system, which is dedicated to use in determination of UKC of vessels at the approach to the Port of Swinoujscie. The method includes determination of heel caused by: draught reading errors, wind, current, tugboats and heel related to vessel maneuvers. To determine heel related to vessel maneuver 2-stage method was carried out. The first stage simulation was used to identify the parameters of ship movement. At the second stage, the maximum heel of Bulk Carrier were calculated by using analytical methods. Presented method was implemented to the item rating under keel clearance at the approach to the Port of Swinoujscie