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  • Author: Radu Sion x
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Abstract

Oblivious RAMs (ORAMs) allow a client to access data from an untrusted storage device without revealing the access patterns. Typically, the ORAM adversary can observe both read and write accesses. Write-only ORAMs target a more practical, multi-snapshot adversary only monitoring client writes – typical for plausible deniability and censorship-resilient systems. This allows write-only ORAMs to achieve significantly-better asymptotic performance. However, these apparent gains do not materialize in real deployments primarily due to the random data placement strategies used to break correlations between logical and physical names-paces, a required property for write access privacy. Random access performs poorly on both rotational disks and SSDs (often increasing wear significantly, and interfering with wear-leveling mechanisms).

In this work, we introduce SqORAM, a new locality-preserving write-only ORAM that preserves write access privacy without requiring random data access. Data blocks close to each other in the logical domain land in close proximity on the physical media. Importantly, SqORAM maintains this data locality property over time, significantly increasing read throughput.

A full Linux kernel-level implementation of SqORAM is 100x faster than non locality-preserving solutions for standard workloads and is 60-100% faster than the state-of-the-art for typical file system workloads.

Abstract

Sensitive information is present on our phones, disks, watches and computers. Its protection is essential. Plausible deniability of stored data allows individuals to deny that their device contains a piece of sensitive information. This constitutes a key tool in the fight against oppressive governments and censorship. Unfortunately, existing solutions, such as the now defunct TrueCrypt [5], can defend only against an adversary that can access a user’s device at most once (“single-snapshot adversary”). Recent solutions have traded significant performance overheads for the ability to handle more powerful adversaries able to access the device at multiple points in time (“multi-snapshot adversary”). In this paper we show that this sacrifice is not necessary. We introduce and build DataLair1, a practical plausible deniability mechanism. When compared with existing approaches, DataLair is two orders of magnitude faster for public data accesses, and 5 times faster for hidden data accesses. An important component in DataLair is a new write-only ORAM construction which improves on the complexity of the state of the art write-only ORAM by a factor of O(logN), where N denotes the underlying storage disk size.

Abstract

Encryption protects sensitive data from unauthorized access, yet is not sufficient when users are forced to surrender keys under duress. In contrast, plausible deniability enables users to not only encrypt data but also deny its existence when challenged. Most existing plausible deniability work (e.g. the successful and unfortunately now-defunct TrueCrypt) tackles “single snapshot” adversaries, and cannot handle the more realistic scenario of adversaries gaining access to a device at multiple time points. Such “multi-snapshot” adversaries can simply observe modifications between snapshots and detect the existence of hidden data. Existing ideas handling “multi-snapshot” scenarios feature prohibitive overheads when deployed on practically-sized disks. This is mostly due to a lack of data locality inherent in certain standard access-randomization mechanisms, one of the building blocks used to ensure plausible deniability.

In this work, we show that such randomization is not necessary for strong plausible deniability. Instead, it can be replaced by a canonical form that permits most of writes to be done sequentially. This has two key advantages: 1) it reduces the impact of seek due to random accesses; 2) it reduces the overall number of physical blocks that need to be written for each logical write. As a result, PD-DM increases I/O throughput by orders of magnitude (10–100× in typical setups) over existing work while maintaining strong plausible deniability against multi-snapshot adversaries.

Notably, PD-DM is the first plausible-deniable system getting within reach of the performance of standard encrypted volumes (dm-crypt) for random I/O.