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  • Author: Radovan Pokorný x
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Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using multiple regressions with quadratic spacing (modelling of hourly soil temperature based on the hourly near surface air temperature and hourly soil moisture in the 0.10-0.40 m profile), the difference between the measured and modelled soil temperatures in the depth of 0.05 m was -3.92 to 3.99°C. The regression equation paired with alternative agrometeorological instruments enables relatively accurate modelling of soil temperatures (R2 = 0.95).

Open access
The course, stratification and possibility of simulating relative air humidity in winter wheat stand

Abstract

The aim of this study was: (i) long-term (2010, 2011 and 2013) evaluation of the relative air humidity in the winter wheat canopy, (ii) finding of relationships between relative air humidity in canopy and computed or measured meteorological values (precipitation totals, evapotranspiration, moisture balance, specific air humidity, volume soil moisture, % of available soil water content, value of soil water potential), (iii) testing of simulation of daily relative air humidity, based on selected meteorological values and potential evapotranspiration (FAO Penman-Monteith method) and actual evapotranspiration, (iv) testing of simulation of relative air humidity hourly values in the wheat canopy, (v) evaluation of dependence between relative air humidity and leaf wetness. The measurement was performed at the experimental field station of Mendel University in Žabčice (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). Data recording for wheat canopy was conducted by means of a meteostation equipped with digital air humidity and air temperature sensors positioned in the ground, effective height of the stand and in 2 m above the ground. The main vegetation period of wheat was divided into three stages to evaluate differences in various growing phases of wheat. The data from nearby standard climatological stations and from agrometeorological station in Žabčice were used for establishment of relationships between relative air humidity in winter wheat canopy and surrounding environment by correlation and regression analysis. Relative air humidity above 90% occurred substantially longer on the ground and at the effective height of the stand in comparison with the height of 2 m. By means of regression analysis we determined that the limit of 90% was reached in the canopy when at the climatological station it was just 60 to 90% for ground level and 70 to 90% for effective height, especially during the night. Slight dependence between measured or computed meteorological variables and relative air humidity in winter wheat canopy was found (r = 0.23 − 0.56 for precipitation totals, r = 0.27 − 0.57 for % of available soil water capacity, etc.). The simulation of hourly values of relative air humidity in wheat canopy is partially possible just when using the data of relative air humidity from the relevant standard climatological station.

Open access
Specifics of soil temperature under winter wheat canopy

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter wheat canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for phytopathological prediction models, crop development, and yield models. The measurement of soil temperatures was performed at the experimental field station ˇZabˇcice (Europe, the Czech Republic, South Moravia). The soil in the first experimental plot is Gleyic Fluvisol with 49-58% of the content particles measuring < 0.01 mm, in the second experimental plot, the soil is Haplic Chernozem with 31-32% of the content particles measuring < 0.01 mm. The course of soil temperature and its specifics were determined under winter wheat canopy during the main growth season in the course of three years. Automatic soil temperature sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m under soil surface), air temperature sensor in 0.05 m above soil surface. Results of the correlation analysis showed that the best interrelationships between these two variables were achieved after a 3-hour delay for the soil temperature at 0.05 m, 5-hour delay for 0.10 m, and 8-hour delay for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient reached values from 0.75 to 0.89 for the depth of 0.05 m, 0.61 to 0.82 for the depth of 0.10 m, and 0.33 to 0.70 for the depth of 0.20 m. When using multiple regression with quadratic spacing (modeling hourly soil temperature based on the hourly near surface air temperature and hourly soil moisture in the 0.10-0.40 m profile), the difference between the measured and the model soil temperatures at 0.05 m was −2.16 to 2.37 ◦ C. The regression equation paired with alternative agrometeorological instruments enables relatively accurate modeling of soil temperatures (R2 = 0.93).

Open access