At the beginning of the 1990s Poland, like the majority of the Central and East European countries (CEECs) undergoing transformations, overcame its initial distrust and began to recognize that the only path to regional stability and national economic growth was economic integration. The Central and Eastern European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA), signed by the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia on 21 December 1992 in Cracow, provided for the elimination of a number of trade barriers and the growth in commercial exchanges between the signatory nations, aimed at facilitating their integration with the European Union at a later stage.
This article constitutes an attempt to assess the main effects of the implementation of CEFTA on the functioning of its member states as well as their further integration as Member States of the EU. It also presents the main provisions of the modernized CEFTA 2006, and the current problems related to implementation of the agreement. It also discusses the opportunities and prospects for Croatia, as a former CEFTA member state, upon its scheduled accession to the EU in July 2013. This article is intended as an introduction to further and deeper analysis in this area.
Tourism, as one of the biggest and fastest growing industries in the world, has an enormous impact on the achievements of the Europe 2020 growth strategy. The main factor influencing its effectiveness, based on achievement of strategy indicators, is tourist infrastructure, which is understood as hotel and restaurant facilities used by tourists coming to a particular area to meet their needs associated with passive and active tourism. To achieve the highest effectiveness in this regard, the European Union has established the scheme of Ecolabel standards, implemented in individual countries through independent certification, compliance with which means that the strategy’s assumptions can be effectively implemented. According to experts, managing a facility in compliance with Ecolabel standards today is an example of innovative hotel management. In addition to the benefits resulting from taking care of the environment, the certification also allows for a reduction of the operating costs of a facility. This paper aims at verifying - through an econometric model – research hypotheses related to the reduction in operating costs of a facility that complies with the certification standards.
Social Aspects of New Technologies - the CCTV and Biometric (Framing Privacy and Data Protection) in the Case of Poland
The purpose of this paper is to review the institution responsible for the protection of personal data within the European Union and national example - Polish as a country representing the new Member States. The analysis of institutional system - providing legal security of communication and information institutions, companies and citizens against the dangers arising from the ongoing development of innovative new technologies in the European Union and Poland. This article is an attempt to analyze the possibility of using security systems and Biometry CTTV in Poland in terms of legislation. The results of the analysis indicate that, in terms of institutions Poland did not do badly in relation to the risks arising from the implementation of technology. The situation is not as good when it comes to the awareness of citizens and small businesses. This requires that facilitate greater access to free security software companies from data leakage or uncontrolled cyber-terrorist attacks. With regard to the use of security systems, CCTV and biometrics, Poland in legal terms is still early in the process of adapting to EU Directive. The continuous development of technology should force the legislature to establish clear standards and regulations for the application of CCTV technology and biometrics, as it is of great importance in ensuring the fundamental rights and freedoms of every citizen of the Polish Republic.
Poland’s accession to the European Union has given many opportunities both in terms of access to the EU economy and European funds. Owing to the set sustainable development goals, the business sphere faces the challenge of their implementation through, among others, activities in the area of social and human capital, and environmental protection. It is important to model solutions that enable sustainable production and consumption. The introduction of innovative product and process technologies may contribute to increasing the competitiveness of SMEs in the Textile and Clothing sector, which in consequence should also contribute to the implementation of objectives of the Regional Smart Specializations for Lodz Province. An example of such solutions is the system for personalized production of clothes presented in the article. The aim of the article is to determine the current situation of the Polish clothing industry in trade with the European Union by analyzing comparative advantages for CN 61 and 62 (related to the clothing industry) and presenting the level of innovation of Lodz Province against the background of Poland as a region specializing in the production of clothing under the adopted Regional Smart Specializations for Lodz Province. It is assumed that the presented system for the personalized production of clothing may affect the competitiveness of this industry and the region.