Tomáš Perečko, Katarína Drábiková, Radomír Nosáľ, Juraj Harmatha and Viera Jančinová
Chronic inflammatory diseases, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis or cystic fibrosis, are characterised by neutrophil infiltration in inflamed tissues. Dysregulated neutrophil death may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases where neutrophils play a role. Stilbene derivatives are reported to activate apoptosis in different cell lines. Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were incubated in vitro with resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin or piceatannol (1-100 μmol/l), and cytotoxicity and apoptosis were measured by luminometry and flow cytometry, respectively. Enhancement and/or inhibition of human recombinant caspase-3 enzyme activity were measured by luminometry. None of the stilbene derivatives tested increased ATP liberation from human neutrophils, thus showing no direct cytotoxicity effect. Resveratrol and piceatannol (100 μmol/l) treated neutrophils had a higher rate of apoptosis compared to non-treated cells. Pterostilbene and pinosylvin (1 μmol/l), yet not resveratrol or piceatannol, increased the activity of caspase-3. However in the concentration of 100 μmol/l, all stilbene derivatives tested inhibited caspase-3 activity. Their effects on human neutrophil apoptosis differed according to the structure of the molecule. Additional studies are required to get insight into the mechanisms involved in the effects of the substances tested on neutrophil viability.
Jana Pečivová, Tatiana Mačičková, Klára Sviteková and Radomír Nosáľ
Activated neutrophils represent the main source of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide (SO) and subsequently derived oxygen metabolites. They have important microbicidal activities, however in inflammatory conditions they may secondarily attack surrounding tissues. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species, prolonged or excessive liberation of MPO and other effective yet also toxic substances from neutrophils may participate in disturbed apoptosis, intensify the inflammatory processes and result in serious human diseases. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on PMA stimulated SO generation in isolated human neutrophils was found to be dosedependent, without affecting the activity of intact isolated neutrophils. At comparable conditions, quercetin was more potent in inhibiting MPO release than SO generation. Our results indicate that quercetin could support resolution of inflammation through decreased activity of neutrophils, i.e. respiratory burst and degranulation.
Katarína Drábiková, Tomáš Perečko, Radomír Nosáľ, Juraj Harmatha, Jan Šmidrkal and Viera Jančinová
The study provides new information on the effect of natural polyphenols (derivatives of stilbene - resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin and piceatannol and derivatives of ferulic acid - curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin) on the activity of human neutrophils in influencing oxidative burst. All the polyphenols tested were found to reduce markedly the production of reactive oxygen species released by human neutrophils on extra-and intracellular levels as well as in cell free system. Moreover, pinosylvin, curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin and resveratrol decreased protein kinase C activity involved in neutrophil signalling and reactive oxygen species production. Our results suggest that due to their anti-neutrophil activity, the polyphenols tested might be attractive candidates in therapeutic development.
Viera Jančinová, Tomáš Perečko, Juraj Harmatha, Radomír Nosáľ and Katarína Drábiková
Prolonged or excessive formation and liberation of cytotoxic substances from neutrophils intensifies inflammation and the risk of tissue damage. From this perspective, administration of substances which are able to reduce activity of neutrophils and to enhance apoptosis of these cells may improve the therapy of pathological states connected with persistent inflammation. In this short review, neutrophil oxidative burst and apoptosis are presented as potential targets for pharmacological intervention. Effects of natural polyphenols (resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin, piceatannol, curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin) are summarised, considering the ability of these compounds to affect inflammation and particularly neutrophil activity. The intended neutrophil inhibition is introduced as a part of a new strategy for pharmacological modulation of chronic inflammatory processes, focused on supporting innate antiinflammatory mechanisms and enhancing resolution of inflammation.
Viera Jančinová, Tomáš Perečko, Radomir Nosáľ, Danica Mihalová, Katarína Bauerová and Katarína Drabiková
Pharmacological regulation of neutrophil activity and apoptosis
Novel strategies of antiinflammatory therapy are based upon pharmacological agents capable to enhance the resolution - i.e. the termination of the beneficial inflammation before it may turn into an adverse chronic stage. In contrast to the current therapy, which antagonises the formation of proinflammatory mediators, the "proresolving" therapy promotes natural antiinflammatory processes. It is likely that several drugs and phytochemicals would act in this way, but this point has not been investigated and thus might be totally overlooked. In this paper, effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) were analysed, considering the ability of this natural compound to affect resolution of inflammation through modulation of its important inputs - activity and apoptosis of neutrophils. The presented data indicate that, besides its well-known ability to suppress mechanisms engaged at the onset and progression of inflammation, curcumin could support resolution of inflammation through decreased activity and enhanced apoptosis of neutrophils. This substance decreased the formation of oxidants in neutrophils, both under in vitro conditions and after oral administration to arthritic rats. Moreover, curcumin accelerated spontaneous apoptosis of neutrophils, as indicated by increased externalisation of phosphatidylserine, by intercalation of propidium iodide and by enhanced activity of the executioner caspase-3.
Tatiana Mačičková, Jana Pečivová, Juraj Harmatha, Klára Sviteková and Radomír Nosáľ
Neutrophils represent the body´s primary line of defense against invading pathogens. They most rapidly reach the site of injury or infection, liberate antimicrobial proteins, proteases and produce reactive oxygen species. Prolonged or excessive liberation of these very effective and toxic substances could intensify the inflammatory process and enhance tissue damage in many diseases, such as allergies, infections and rheumatoid arthritis. Pterostilbene belongs to stilbenoids, structural analogues of resveratrol, which act as natural protective agents in defending the plant against viral and microbial attack. It possesses anticancerous, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties.
The study provides new information on the effect of pterostilbene [0.01-100 μmol/l] on superoxide generation in and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release from azurophil granules of isolated human neutrophils. PMA [1 μmol/l], which activates NADPH-oxidase via protein kinase C, was used for stimulation of neutrophils Unstimulated cells showed neither superoxide generation nor myelopereoxidase release after preincubation with the drug studied. Pterostilbene dose dependently decreased superoxide generation in and MPO release from stimulated human neutrophils, however a significant decrease was recorded only in the concentration 100 μmol/l. The effect of pterostilbene was more pronounced on superoxide generation in comparison to MPO release. Our results suggest that the effect of pterostilbene may prove beneficial in controlling inflammation.
Jana Pečivová, Radomír Nosáľ, Klára Sviteková and Tatiana Mačičková
Neutrophils, highly motile phagocytic cells, constitute the first line of host defense and simultaneously they are considered to be central cells of chronic inflammation. In combination with standard therapeutic procedures, natural substances are gaining interest as an option for enhancing the effectiveness of treatment of inflammatory diseases. We investigated the effect of arbutin and carvedilol and of their combination on 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-13α-acetate- stimulated functions of human isolated neutrophils. Cells were preincubated with the drugs tested and subsequently stimulated. Superoxide (with or without blood platelets, in the rate close to physiological conditions [1:50]) and HOCl generation, elastase and myeloperoxidase release were determined spectrophotometrically and phospholipase D activation spectrofluorometrically. The combined effect of arbutin and carvedilol was found to be more effective than the effect of each compound alone. Our study provided evidence supporting the potential beneficial effect of arbutin alone or in combination with carvedilol in diminishing tissue damage by decreasing phospholipase D, myeloperoxidase and elastase activity and by attenuating the generation of superoxide and the subsequently derived reactive oxygen species. The presented data indicate the ability of arbutin to suppress the onset and progression of inflammation
Jana Králová, Michaela Pekarová, Katarína Drábiková, Viera Jančinová, Radomír Nosál, Milan Číž and Antonín Lojek
The effects of dithiaden on nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells
Asreported in our previous studies, dithiaden (an antagonist of histamine H1-receptor, used clinically as an anti-allergic or anti-emetic drug) in a concentration range of 5×10-5-10-4 M decreased the production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes. In this study we investigated the influence of dithiaden on nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated macrophages.
The cell viability in the presence of 10-4-5×10-5 M dithiaden was evaluated by an ATP-test. RAW 264.7 cells (2.5×106/well) were preincubated with dithiaden for 60 mins and subsequently stimulated with 0.1 μg/ml of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. After incubating for 24 hours the NO production was determined spectrophotometrically using Griess reaction as a concentration of nitrites (the end product of NO metabolism) accumulated in the cell supernatants. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cell-lysates was evaluated using Western blot analysis. Scavenging properties of dithiaden against NO were evaluated amperometrically. Our data demonstrate that dithiaden in the concentration of 5×10-5 M (approved by ATP test as non toxic) caused a significant decrease in the accumulation of nitrites, and in addition, this decline was followed by a marked reduction of iNOS protein expression. Amperometrical analysis did not show any scavenging properties of dithiaden against NO.
From this data it can be suggested that the inhibition effect of dithiaden on macrophage NO production is caused exclusively by the suppression of iNOS protein expression.
Viera Jančinová, Radomír Nosáľ, Juraj Payer and Zdenko Killinger
Infectious complications, resulting from reduced activity of immune cells, are the most severe and common adverse effects of biological therapy. This study analyzed the effect of biological therapy on blood phagocytes, focusing on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important factor in the defence against invading pathogens. Intra- and extracellular ROS production were recorded separately, on the basis of luminol and isoluminol chemiluminescence in patients treated with antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-α or against interleukin-6 receptor. In comparison to healthy donors or to rheumatic patients treated with classical immunosuppressive drugs, biological therapy increased ROS formation in both compartments. This indicates that the anti-microbial activity of blood phagocytes was not reduced by TNFα- or IL-6-neutralizing therapy, at least in terms of ROS.
The method presented does not require blood fractionation, which could modify activity of phagocytes and cause loss of some sub-populations of these cells. The technique is simple, requires microliter volumes of blood and is thus well applicable to clinical studies.
Frantisek Drafi, Katarina Bauerova, Viera Kuncirova, Silvester Ponist, Danica Mihalova, Tatiana Fedorova, Juraj Harmatha and Radomir Nosal
Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. A certain correlation was observed between oxidative stress, arthritis and the immune system. Reactive oxygen species produced in the course of cellular oxidative phosphorylation and by activated phagocytic cells during oxidative burst, exceed the physiological buffering capacity and result in oxidative stress. The excessive production of ROS can damage protein, lipids, nucleic acids, and matrix components. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an altered antioxidant defense capacity barrier. In the present study the effect of substances with antioxidative properties, i.e. pinosylvin and carnosine, was determined in monotherapy for the treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA). Moreover carnosine was evaluated in combination therapy with methotrexate. Rats with AA were administered first pinosylvin (30 mg/kg body mass daily per os), second carnosine (150 mg/kg body mass daily per os) in monotherapy for a period of 28 days. Further, rats with AA were administered methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body mass 2-times weekly per os), and a combination of methotrexate+carnosine, with the carnosine dose being the same as in the previous experiment. Parameters, i.e. changes in hind paw volume and arthritic score were determined in rats as indicators of destructive arthritis-associated clinical changes. Plasmatic levels of TBARS and lag time of Fe2+- induced lipid peroxidation (tau-FeLP) in plasma and brain were specified as markers of oxidation. Plasmatic level of CRP and activity of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in spleen and joint were used as inflammation markers. In comparison to pinosylvin, administration of carnosine monotherapy led to a significant decrease in the majority of the parameters studied. In the combination treatment with methotrexate+carnosine most parameters monitored were improved more remarkably than by methotrexate alone. Carnosine can increase the disease-modifying effect of methotrexate treatment in rat AA.