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  • Author: Radica Živković Zarić x
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Ruthenium(II) Complexes as Potential Apoptosis Inducers in Cancer Therapy


The compound cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) is the most widely used anticancer drug, but due to its serious side effects (including gastrointestinal symptoms, renal tubular injury, neuromuscular complications, and ototoxicity), clinical applications of cisplatin are limited. Therefore, these limitations have provided an encouragement for further research into other transition metal complexes, with an aim to overcome the disadvantages related with cisplatin therapy. In the search for effective complexes that can be targeted against tumor cells, many research groups synthesized various ruthenium( II) complexes with different ligands. Also, newly synthesized ruthenium(II) complexes showed selective anticancer activity against different types of cancer cells. Activity of ruthenium(II) complexes in some cases was even higher than that of cisplatin against the same cells. Precise mechanism of action of ruthenium(II) complexes is not fully understood. The different examples mentioned in this review showed that ruthenium(II) complexes decreased viability of cancer cells by induction of apoptosis and/or by cell cycle arrest which implies their different mechanism of action against different types of cancer cells.

Open access
Forensic Genetics and Genotyping


Forensic genetics represents a combination of molecular and population genetics. Personal identification and kinship analysis (e.g. paternity testing) are the two main subjects of forensic DNA analysis. Biological specimens from which DNA is isolated are blood, semen, saliva, tissues, bones, teeth, hairs. Genotyping has become a basis in the characterization of forensic biological evidence. It is performed using a variety of genetic markers, which are divided into two large groups: bi-allelic (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNP) and multi-allelic polymorphisms (variable number of tandem repeats, VNTR and short tandem repeats, STR). This review describes the purpose of genetic markers in forensic investigation and their limitations. The STR loci are currently the most informative genetic markers for identity testing, but in cases without a suspect SNP can predict offender’s ancestry and phenotype traits such as skin, eyes and hair color. Nowadays, many countries worldwide have established forensic DNA databases based on autosomal short tandem repeats and other markers. In order for DNA profile database to be useful at a national or international level, it is essential to standardize genetic markers used in laboratories.

Open access
Population Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Adult Patients with Long Bones’ Fractures


Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic, mostly used in the treatment of severe staphylococcal and enterococcal infections, especially in orthopedic surgery.

The purpose of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of vancomycine in hospitalized patients with bone fractures and identify important factors which influence its clearance (CL).

A total of ninety-nine measurements of vancomycin serum concentrations were used in our population modeling. A two-compartment model was applied to describe the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin using subroutines ADVAN3 and TRANS4.

The study population included patients of both sexes, with the mean age of 62.12±14.69 years and body weight of 80.32±12.44kg. Vancomycin was administered as intravenous infusion with average daily dose of 1772.73±521.34mg. Out of twenty different factors evaluated in the study (including demographic, clinical and laboratory data), only daily dose of vancomycin (DD) and co-medication with piperacillin/tazobactam (PT) showed significant effect on clearance of vancomycin. The final model was described by the following equation: CL (l/h) = 0.03 + 0.000468 x DD + 0.675 x PT. Bootstrapping was used for validation of the final model.

In conclusion, the main causes of variability in the clearance of vancomycin among adult patients with bone fractures are daily dose of vancomycin and co-medication with piperacillin/tazobactam.

Open access