Role of the APOB Gene Polymorphism (c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys) in Coronary Artery Disease in the Indian Punjabi Population
High concentration of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The association of the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys with the risk of CAD varies considerably in different populations. The present study represents the first investigation regarding the role of this APOB gene polymorphism with CAD in the Indian Punjabi population. We have studied the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys and its relationship with lipid, apoB, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) heterogeneity and oxidation in subjects suffering from CAD. The study was conducted on 87 patients with CAD; 75 healthy subjects served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the APOB gene. Frequency of R-(mutant) allele was significantly high (p <0.05) in CAD patients when compared to controls. Variations in serum lipid levels in the R+R+ and R+R- APOB genotypes were insignificant (p >0.05). However, serum apoB levels were significantly raised (p <0.05) in CAD patients with the R+R- genotype as compared to those with the R+R+ APOB genotype. Coronary artery disease patients had raised significantly raised (p <0.01) Log triglyceride/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, apoB carbonyl content and increased malondialdehyde-low density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL levels, irrespective of APOB genotype as compared to controls. Carriers of the R- allele are at higher risk of CAD, probably because of elevated serum apoB levels in the Indian Punjabi population. Overall, it may be concluded that the R- allele might be associated with increased susceptibility towards CAD development in the Indian Punjabi population, and one of the linking factor is the elevation in serum apoB levels. However, this association needs further evaluation in a larger population. Secondly, the robust mechanism behind the positive association of the R- allele with raised serum apoB levels needs to be explored, which might be helpful in the strengthening the observed results.
Sumit K. Roy, S. Chaudhuri, R.K. Kotnala, D.K. Singh, B.P. Singh, S.N. Singh, K.P. Chandra and K. Prasad
In this work the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and dielectric studies of lead free perovskite (1 – x)Ba0.06(Na1/2Bi1/2)0.94TiO3–xNaNbO3 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.0) ceramics, prepared using a standard solid state reaction method, were investigated. X-ray diffraction studies of all the ceramics suggested the formation of single phase with crystal structure transforming from rhombohedral-tetragonal to orthorhombic symmetry with the increase in NaNbO3 content. Raman spectra also confirmed the formation of solid solution without any new phase. Dielectric studies showed that the phase transition is of diffusive character and diffusivity parameter decreases with increasing NaNbO3 content. The compositional fluctuation was considered to be the main cause of diffusivity.
The seismic analysis carried out assuming foundation to be perfectly rigid and bonded to the soil underneath is far from truth and therefore, the soil-structure interaction effect on the dynamic behavior of the bridge pier should be considered. The assessment of soil-structure effect on the design force generated has been estimated using Force based, Capacity Spectrum and Direct Displacement based methods considering fixed and flexible foundations. For this purpose a single cantilever bridge pier of constant diameter with varying heights has been considered for the analysis in different type of soils and earthquake zones. The study has revealed that soil-Structure Interaction index is negative in some cases, especially in soft soil, implying base shear demand being greater than that of fixed base contrary to the traditional views.
B.K. Sharma, A.P. Singh, K. Yadav and R.C. Chaudhary
This paper presents a study of a hydromagnetic free convection flow of an electrically conducting micropolar fluid past a vertical plate through a porous medium with a heat source, taking into account the homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. A uniform magnetic field has also been considered in the study which acts perpendicular to the porous surface of the above plate. The analysis has been done by assuming varying permeability of the medium and the Rosseland approximation has been used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. Numerical results are presented graphically in the form of velocity, micro- rotation, concentration and temperature profiles, the skin-friction coefficient, the couple stress coefficient, the rate of heat and mass transfers at the wall for different material parameters. The study clearly demonstrates how a chemical reaction influences the above parameters under given conditions
L. Alappat, S. Tsukamoto, P. Singh, D. Srikanth, R. Ramesh and M. Frechen
Chronology of Cauvery Delta Sediments from Shallow Subsurface Cores Using Elevated-Temperature Post-IR IRSL Dating of Feldspar
We present the results of luminescence dating of sediments from two cores from the Cauvery Delta in south-east India. Since all natural quartz OSL signals except one sample were in saturation, the elevated temperature post-IR IRSL protocol for K-feldspar was applied to establish a chronology. Internal dose rates of K-feldspar grains were calculated from the measured internal content of potassium, uranium, thorium and rubidium in the bulk of K-feldspar grains using solution ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis. A substantial scatter in single-aliquot De values was observed which is most probably due to the effect of incomplete bleaching of fluvial sediments before burial. A minimum age model was applied to extract possible depositional ages. The study revealed that except an upper layer of Holocene sediments (< 5m), the majority of the upper ~50m of Cauvery delta sediments were deposited between marine isotope stage MIS-5 and MIS-10 or older. The feldspar luminescence ages also indicate the existence of a period of non deposition or erosion in the upper part of the cores.
Sachin Kumar, Naven Kumar, Kamna Yadav, Annveer and R.P. Singh
DFT analyses of electronic and optical spectra of barium cadmium chalcogenides (Ba2CdX3, X =S, Se, Te) have been carried out. The study of electronic spectra has been made in terms of band structure and density of states using full potential linear augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. Band structure calculations have been carried out under the approximations PBE-GGA, PBE-Sol, LDA and TB-mBJ. Band structures of these materials show that Ba2CdS3, Ba2CdSe3 and Ba2CdTe3 crystals possess a band gap less than 1 eV, underestimated relative to the experimental/theoretical literature values. Optical spectra of these chalcogenides have been analyzed in terms of real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, reflectivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity and electron energy loss. Optical results show large anisotropy along different directions. These results provide a physical basis of barium cadmium chalcogenides for potential application in optoelectronic devices.
Rajamanickam Gowthaman, V. Sanil Kumar, Gowdagere Siddaramaish Dwarakish, P.R. Shanas, Basanta Kumar Jena and Jai Singh
Wave-induced Longshore Sediment Transport (LST) play an important role in the dynamics of the Dhanushkodi sandspit located southeast of Rameshwaram. The LST along the Dhanushkodi coast is studied based on data collected simultaneously in Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and Palk Bay (PB) using directional waverider buoys. The numerical model REF/DIF1 was used to calculate the nearshore waves and the LST rate was estimated using three different formulae. The model validation was done based on the measured nearshore waves using InterOcean S4DW. Numerical model LITPACK was also used for simulating non-cohesive sediment transport and the LITLINE module was used to study the shoreline evolution over 5 years. Low net annual LST along PB (~ 0.01×106 m3) compared to the GoM region (0.3×106 m3) were due to the weak waves. Accretion in the region led to growth of the Dhanushkodi sandspit by 65 m during the period 2010-2015.