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Open access

David J. Lee, J. R. Huth, J. T. Brawner and G. R. Dickinson

Abstract

Eighty six full-sib Corymbia F1 hybrid families (crosses between C. torelliana and four spotted gum taxa: C. citriodora subsp. variegata, C. citriodora subsp. citriodora, C. henryi and C. maculata), were planted in six trials across six disparate sites in south-eastern Queensland to evaluate their productivity and determine their potential utility for plantation forestry. In each trial, the best-growing 20% of hybrid families grew significantly faster (P = 0.05) than open-pollinated seedlots of the parent species Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata, ranging from 107% to 181% and 127% to 287% of the height and diameter respectively. Relative performance of hybrid families growing on more than one site displayed consistency in ranking for growth across sites and analysis showed low genotype-by-environment interaction. Heritability estimates based on female and male parents across two sites at age six years for height and diameter at breast height, were high (0.62 ± 0.28 to 0.64 ± 0.35 and 0.31 ± 0.21 to 0.69 ± 0.37 respectively), and low to moderate (0.03 ± 0.04 to 0.33 ± 0.22) for stem straightness, branch size, incidence of ramicorns, and frost and disease resistance traits at ages one to three years. The proportion of dominance variance for height and diameter had reduced to zero by age six years. Based on these promising results, further breeding and pilot-scale family forestry and clonal forestry deployment is being undertaken. These results have also provided insights regarding the choice of a future hybrid breeding strategy.

Open access

G. R. Dickinson, H. M. Wallace and D. J. Lee

Abstract

Inter-specific Corymbia hybrids are of increasing interest to plantation forestry, yet there is little knowledge of the most suitable controlled pollination methods for this genus. Inter-specific crosses were made between C. torelliana [CT(maternal parent)] and C. citriodora subsp. variegata (CCV), C. henryi (CH) and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora (CCC) using conventional pollination, one-stop pollination (OSP) and artificially-induced protogyny on yellow buds (AIP Y) pollination methods. Additional treatments included AIP on green buds (AIP G) and the use of exclusion bags for the OSP and AIP methods. Inter-specific hybrids (CT x CCV, CT x CH and CT x CCC) were successfully created using all three pollination methods. The AIP Y treatment provided the highest seed yields and achieved time savings of >41% over the conventional and OSP methods, resulting in up to five-fold increases in operator productivity. However, the AIP Y treatment also had the highest C. torelliana contamination levels (9.3-13.2%). The use of exclusion bags with the AIP method had minimal effect on contamination rates, indicating a high proportion of selfpollen contamination. Contamination rates varied between maternal parents, suggesting variation in selfcompatibility for C. torelliana individuals. AIP using semi-ripe green buds was not effective at reducing selfing and had low operator productivity. The AIP method is suitable for use in a large-scale hybrid breeding program for C. torelliana. When self-pollination effects are managed, it could greatly reduce the costs associated with the production of seed of elite family crosses for commercial forestry deployment.

Open access

J. W. Ochieng, M. Shepherd, P. R. Baverstock, G. Nikles, D. J. Lee and R. J. Henry

Abstract

Population substructure and hybridization, among other factors, have the potential to cause erroneous associations in linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping. Two closely related spotted gum eucalypts, Corymbia variegata and C. henryi (Myrtaceae) occur in sympatry in the east coast of Australia and potentially interbreed. They are morphologically similar but are distinguished as separate species based on capsule and foliage size. To determine whether they hybridize in nature and its implications for LD mapping, we investigated the level of molecular divergence between the two species at two sympatric locations separated by 300 kilometres. Very few individuals of intermediate morphology were identified, despite the two species occurring only metres apart. Analysis of genetic structure using 12 microsatellite loci showed that genetic differentiation between populations of the same species at different locations (FST = 0.07 for both species; p = 0.0001) was significantly higher than that observed between species at each location (mean FST = 0.02 and 0.04 for Cherry tree and Bunyaville respectively; p = 0.0001; all Mann-Whitney U-test p ≤ 0.01). No species-specific alleles or significant allele frequency differences were detected within a site, suggesting recurr#ent local gene flow between the two species. The lack of significant allele frequency differences implies no population stratification along taxonomic lines. This suggested that there is little concern for cryptic hybridization when sampling from sites of sympatry for LD mapping.

Open access

S.H. Park, D.B. Kim, R.G. Lee and I.J. Son

Abstract

This study focuses on the fabrication of thermal management material for power electronics applications using graphite flake reinforced copper composites. The manufacturing route involved electroless plating of copper in the graphite flake and sintering process are optimized. The microstructures, interface, thermal properties, and relative density of graphite/Cu composites are investigated. The relative density of the composites shows 99.5% after sintering. Thermal conductivities and coefficients of thermal expansion of this composites were 400-480 Wm−1K−1 and 8 to 5 ppm k−1, respectively. Obtained graphite nanoplatelets-reinforced composites exhibit excellent thermo-physical properties to meet the heat dispersion and matching requirements of power electronic devices to the packaging materials.

Open access

G.A. Cruz-Ortiz, A. Samano-Osuna, M. Jimenez-Jimenez, H.R. Alvis-Miranda, A. Lee and L.R. Moscote-Salazar

Abstract

Meningiomas are the most common primary, non-glial tumours of the brain and spine, and represent the most common extra-axial lesions. The typical meningioma is a dural-based, markedly enhancing extraaxial mass; they exhibit cortical buckling with trapped cerebrospinal fluid clefts or cortical vessels. There are factors strongly associated with risk of developing meningioma, as in the case of exposure to ionizing radiation, or exogenous or endogenous hormones, as in this case, the presence of shunt material as a foreign body may have contributed to oncogenesis on the basis of a chronic inflammatory reaction. The aim of this report is to present the clinical case of a meningioma, which enveloped the proximal catheter of ventriculoperitoneal shunt valve

Open access

J.-G. Lee, H.-R. Cha, S. Liu, J.-H. Yu, Y.-K. Baek and H.-W. Kwon

Abstract

The effect of the desorption-recombination temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) processed Nd-Fe-B powders was studied. The NdxB6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2Febal (x=12.5-13.5, at.%) casting alloys were pulverized after homogenizing annealing, and then subjected to HDDR treatment. During the HDDR process, desorption-recombination (DR) reaction was induced at two different temperature, 810°C and 820°C. The higher Nd content resulted in enhanced coercivity of the HDDR powder, and which was attributed to the thicker and more uniform Nd-rich phase along grain boundaries. But this uniform Nd-rich phase induced faster grain growth. The remanence of the powder DR-treated at 820°C is higher than that DR-treated at 810°C. In addition, it was also confirmed that higher DR temperature is much more effective to improve squareness.