The paper presents an analysis of selected aluminum alloys as structural materials used in production of aircraft parts as well as specification of technological parameters of Al alloys extrusion on a backward press with their effect on mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the final product. Upsetting tests with backward extrusion complex cross-sectional profile tests were conducted on aluminum alloys 7075, 2024, 2099. Based on the results, specifications of forging in the form of unit stress - effective strain relations were determined using logarithmic deformation index, allowing proper choice of extrusion parameters. The range of temperatures for hot plastic treatment along with range of extrusion rate for the analyzed thin-walled aircraft profiles were determined. Tests were also conducted on the microstructure of Al alloys in the initial state as well as after the extrusion process had been completed. It has been proved that the proper choice of parameters in the case of a specific profile extruded from Aluminum alloys 2024, 7075, 2099, allows the manufacturing of products of complex crosssections and the quality required in aerospace industry. This has been demonstrated on the example of complex cross-sectional profiles using elements of varied wall thickness.
D. Kuc, E. Hadasik, I. Schindler, P. Kawulok and R. Sliwa
The paper presents analysis of plasticity characteristics and microstructure of magnesium alloys for hot plastic treatment with different aluminium content (3÷8%). Tests were conducted for assessment of susceptibility of tested alloys to hot plastic deformation. A tensile test was run in temperature from 250 to 450°C. Based on the results, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and reduction of area (Z) were determined for samples. Conducted compression tests allowed to specify the flow stress and microstructure changes after deformation. The activation energy in hot forming was determined for investigated alloys. The parameters of the process where flow is significantly influenced by twin formation in microstructure were determined. A varied plasticity of tested alloys was found depending on aluminium content. Test results will be useful in development of forging technology of selected construction elements which serve as light substitutes for currently used materials.
M.S. Wilk and R.E. Śliwa
The above paper presents the assumptions and results of the research whose aim was to determine the influence of 2024, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys on the final properties of GLARE-type composites. GLARE 3 2/1 type composites, made of two layers of the epoxy prepreg, reinforced with unidirectional glass fibers, arranged in the direction of 0°/90°, and two sheets of aluminum with a thickness of 0.4 mm, were investigated. Composites of various stacking configurations of alloy layers, made of one type of aluminum alloy (so-called ‘homogeneous composites’), and two different alloys (mixed composites), were analyzed. The properties of the composites were evaluated with the use of the mixing rule and compared with the test results.
The influence of the used aluminum alloys on mechanical properties of GLARE-type composites has been determined. GLARE-type composite made of 7075 alloy sheets had the most favorable mechanical properties in comparison to properties of composites with 2024 and 6061 sheets. It has been shown how the properties of GLARE-type composites depend on the type of the aluminum alloy. It has been also proved that the properties of GLARE-type composites can be evaluated with the use of the mixing rule.
P. Lacki, Z. Kucharczyk, R.E. Śliwa and T. Gałaczyński
Friction stir welding (FSW) is one of the youngest methods of metal welding. Metals and its alloys are joined in a solid state at temperature lower than melting points of the joined materials. The method is constantly developed and friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is one of its varieties. In the friction stir spot welding process a specially designed tool is brought into rotation and plunged, straight down, in the joined materials. Heat is generated as a result of friction between the tool and materials, and plastic deformation of the joined materials. Softening (plastic zone) of the joined materials occurs. Simultaneously the materials are stirred. After removal of the tool, cooling down the stirred materials create a solid state joint.
Numerical simulation of the process was carried out with the ADINA System based on the finite element method (FEM). The problem was considered as an axisymmetric one. A thermal and plastic material model was assumed for Al 6061-T6. Frictional heat was generated on the contact surfaces between the tool and the joined elements. The model of Coulomb friction, in which the friction coefficient depends on the temperature, was used.
An influence of the tool geometry on heat generation in the welded materials was analysed. The calculations were carried out for different radiuses of the tool stem and for different angles of the abutment. Temperature distributions in the welded materials as a function of the process duration assuming a constant value of rotational tool speed and the speed of tool plunge were determined. Additionally, the effect of the stem radius and its height on the maximum temperature was analysed. The influence of tool geometry parameters on the temperature field and the temperature gradient in the welded materials was shown. It is important regarding the final result of FSSW.
M. Nowak, Z. Nowak, R.B. Pęcherski, M. Potoczek and R.E. Śliwa
In the present paper a finite element model was used to investigate the mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus of open-cell ceramic foam. Finite element discretization was derived from real foam specimen by computer tomography images. The generated 3D geometry of the ceramic foam was used to simulate deformation process under compression. The own numerical procedure was developed to control finite element mesh density by changing the element size. Several numerical simulations of compression test have been carried out using commercial finite element code ABAQUS. The size of the ceramic specimen and the density of finite element mesh were examined. The influence of type and size of finite element on the value of Young’s modulus was studied, as well. The obtained numerical results have been compared with the results of experimental investigations carried out by Ortega . It is shown that numerical results are in close agreement with experiment. It appears also that the dependency of Young’s modulus of ceramic foam on density of finite element mesh cannot be ignored.
Z. Nowak, M. Nowak, R.B. Pęcherski, M. Potoczek and R.E. Śliwa
The mechanical properties and numerical model of ceramic alumina open-cell foam, which is produced by the chemical method of gelcasting with different cell sizes (porosities) are presented. Geometric characteristics of real foam samples were estimated from tomographic and scanning electron microscopy images. Using this information, numerical foam model was proposed. A good agreement between the numerical model and the results elaborated from microtomography was obtained. To simulate the deformation processes the finite element program ABAQUS was used. The main goal of this computation was to obtain macroscopic force as a function of applied vertical displacement in compression test.
As a result of numerical simulation of compression test of alumina foam for different values of porosity, the Young modulus and the strength of such foams were estimated.
J. Ligoda-Chmiel, M. Potoczek and R. E. Śliwa
Methods of measuring effective material properties, including Young’s, Kirchoff’s modulus or Poisson’s ratio for composites with an interpenetrating network structure, where the both constituent phases have widely different physical properties, do not lead to an unambiguous interpretation. The commonly- known static methods have the basic disadvantage that higher strain values are needed in order to obtain proper results which is generally impossible to achieve in the case of brittle materials, e. g. ceramics or polymers, as well as for composites created by connecting both these components. The measurement of strain values during the stress test, decreases the values of Young’s modulus from several per cent to several dozen per cent, due to appearance of micro fractures in the brittle materials. If there are differences in the values, then a special form and an appropriate amount of samples are needed. Dynamic methods of predicting an effective material properties (ultrasonic and impulse excitation of vibration techniques) are much more accurate, and their non- destructive nature mean that the samples can be used again in other experiments.
This paper uses the traditional compression test and ultrasonic and impulse excitation of vibration methods to compare and analyze the experimental material properties, such as Young’s modulus, Kirchoff’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio using alumina foam/tri-functional epoxy resin composites with an interpenetrating network structure.
R.E. Śliwa, T. Balawender, E. Hadasik, D. Kuc, A. Gontarz, A. Korbel and W. Bochniak
The work presents an analysis of selected magnesium alloys as structural materials to be used in production of aircraft parts as well as their technological parameters in some manufacturing processes. Upsetting test, backward extrusion and Kobo extrusion of complex cross-sectional profiles and forging process were realized using magnesium alloys AZ31, AZ61, AZ80, WE 43 and Mg alloy with Li for production of thin - walled aircraft profiles and forged aviation parts. The range of temperatures and extrusion rate for the manufacturing these profiles were determined. Tests also covered the analysis of microstructure of Mg alloys in the initial state as well as after the extrusion process. It has been proved that the proper choice of parameters in the case of a specific profile extruded from magnesium alloys allows the manufacturing of products of complex cross-sections and the quality required in aerospace industry. This has been demonstrated on the examples of complex cross-sectional profiles using elements of varied wall thickness and examples of forged aviation parts: aircraft wheel hub and helicopter lever for control system.