Weed control management has a vital role in increasing cotton yield and yield components. In cotton crop weed, infestation may harm significant growth and yield loses. To control the weeds under field conditions in cotton crop, different herbicides were selected with different dose levels. Response of various post emergence herbicides at different levels, i.e. Round up 490 G/L at the rate of 4.7 L ha−1, 2.7 L ha−1 and 1.5 L ha−1 (Glyphosate), Gramoxone 20EC (Paraquat) at the rate of 2.5 L ha−1 and untreated (Control) were field experimented against cotton cultivar CIM-473 under field condition at Agronomic Research Area of Central Cotton Research Institute (CCRI) Multan, Pakistan. Significant control of weeds, i.e. number of weeds m−2, fresh weed biomass in g m−2, dry weed biomass in g m−2 and increase in yield and yield contributing factors, like number of bolls plant−1, cotton boll weight (g), final cotton plant height (cm) and seed cotton yield (kg ha−1) were observed. The field data for weed control in term of numbers, fresh and dry weight was observed after 10, 20 and 30 days of sowing. It was indicated that the highest significant yield, total number of bolls per plant, fresh weed biomass, dry weed biomass, plant height and weed control were obtained by using herbicide Round up (Glyphosate) at the rate of 4.7 L ha−1, as compared to the other treatments with different application rates including untreated (control). Average boll weight was not significant among treatments, but significant against control. Cost benefit analysis showed that the highest net profit was obtained by the Round up 490 G/L, when treated @ 4.7 L ha−1 than all other treatments.
Enas R. Abdel Hameed, Inas R. El-Alameey, Lobna S. Sherif, Sahar A. Khairy, Amr S. Megawer, Eman R. Youness and Aisha Mohamed El-Shiemy
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, premature atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease in the future.
AIM: This study is designed to assess the relationship between serum adiponectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and lipid profile among Egyptian overweight and obese children.
METHODS: This cross sectional case control study included 40 selected pre-pubertal overweight and obese children, 24 girls (60%) and 16 boys (40%) aged between 5 to 13 years (8.85 ± 2.7 years), from new cases attending the National nutrition institute clinic during 2013. Forty apparently healthy children of matched age and sex were recruited as a control group.
RESULTS: Obese group showed highly significant higher levels of serum ADMA, triglycerides, and total cholesterol compared with healthy controls (P < 0.000 in all). However, serum adiponectin levels were highly significant lower in obese children compared to healthy controls (P < 0.000). Serum ADMA showed significant positive correlations with height, serum total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels and significant negative correlation with the body mass index and weight for age z score. Serum adiponectin showed significant negative correlations with BMI, weight, and weight for age z score and significant positive correlation with serum triglycerides. By linear regression analysis; serum adiponectin, and serum triglycerides levels were significant predictors of high serum ADMA level (p =0.045 and 0.015 respectively). BMI, weight, height and serum triglycerides were significant predictors of low serum adiponectin levels (p = 0.005, 0.022, 0.026 and 0.015 respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.