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Open access

R. Zapała, B. Kalandyk and P. Wawro

Abstract

A possibility to control the strength, hardness and ductility of the L35HM low-alloy structural cast steel by the applied tempering temperature is discussed in the paper. Tests were carried out on samples taken from the two randomly selected industrial melts. Heat treatment of the cast samples included quenching at 900 °C, cooling in an aqueous solution of polymer, and tempering at 600 and 650 °C. The obtained results showed that the difference in the tempering temperature equal to 50 °C can cause the difference of 121 MPa in the values of UTS and of 153 MPa in the values of 0.2%YS. For both melts tempered at 600 °C, the average values of UTS and 0.2%YS were equal to 995 MPa and 933 MPa, respectively. The values of EL and RA did not show any significant differences. Attention was drawn to large differences in strength and hardness observed between the melts tempered at 600 and 650 °C. Despite differences in the mechanical properties of the examined cast steel, the obtained results were superior to those specified by the standard.

Open access

J. Augustyn-Pieniążek, A. Lukaszczyk and R. Zapala

Abstract

The work presents the results of microscopic tests of two alloys: Co-Cr-Mo and Co-Cr-W-Mo, together with a quantitative local analysis of the chemical composition, with the use of an electron microprobe X-ray analyzer EDS. Corrosion resistance tests were also performed on the alloys, in the artificial saliva environment. The microstructure of the examined alloys was of the dendrite type. An eutectic consisting of alloy carbides and a cobalt austenite was observed in the interdendritic spaces. The dendritic matrix was a solid solution of chromium, molybdenum and carbon in cobalt (Co), and the precipitates present in the interdendritic spaces were rich with Cr and Mo - in the case of Co-Cr-Mo - and with W and Mo - in the case of Co-Cr-W-Mo. The analyzed materials exhibited a similar progress of polarization curves. The obtained currentless potential values and the wide passivation area of those alloys made it possible to conclude their high corrosion resistance in the examined environment.

Open access

B. Kalandyk and R. Zapała

Abstract

The study attempts to determine the impact of the high-manganese cast steel strain hardening on its abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water prepared in accordance with ASTM G75. For tests, the high-manganese cast steel containing 10.7, 17.9 and 20.02% Mn was selected. The results of microstructure examinations and abrasion wear resistance tests carried out on the material in non-hardened condition and after strain hardening with a force of 539.55kN were disclosed. Additionally, the surface of samples after a 16-hour cycle of abrasion tests was examined. Moreover, based on the obtained results, the effect of different contents of Mn in cast steel was studied, mainly in terms of its impact on the abrasion wear resistance. The results obtained on the tested materials were compared with the results obtained on the low-alloyed abrasion wear-resistant cast steel L35GSM.

Open access

B. Mikułowski, R. Zapała, J. Głownia and P. Wilk

Abstract

The paper presents the influence of performance conditions of high-alloyed nickel-chromium cast steel intended for use in steam reforming plants on the morphology and number of phases present in centrifugally cast tubes. Structure identification was done by the methods of light and scanning microscopy. It was found that the main components of the tested cast steel microstructures are carbides of, among others, chromium, iron, and niobium. The structure has also been reported to contain the sigma phase. Additionally, at three test temperatures (20, 820 and 945°), the mechanical properties of the cast steel were determined after years of operation under industrial conditions. The tested material was characterised by low, compared with standard requirements, mechanical properties. A relationship between the content of phases (primary and secondary carbides), measured by the methods of quantitative metallography, and the yield strength of the tested material was determined. The yield strength determined at room temperature, and at 820° and 945° assumed higher values in samples characterised by a relatively large volume content of phases.

Open access

B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała and M. Starowicz

Abstract

Cast stainless steel of the Cr-Ni duplex type is used, among others, for the cast parts of pumps and valves handling various chemically aggressive media. Therefore, the main problem discussed in this article is the problem of abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water and resistance to electrochemical corrosion in a 3% NaCl-H2O solution of selected cast steel grades, i.e. typical duplex cast steel, high silicon and manganese duplex cast steel, and Cr-Ni austenitic cast steel (type AISI 316L). The study shows that the best abrasion wear resistance comparable to Ni-Hart cast iron was obtained in the cast duplex steel, where Ni was partially replaced with Mn and N. This cast steel was also characterized by the highest hardness and matrix microhardness among all the tested cast steel grades. The best resistance to electrochemical corrosion in 3% NaCl-H2O solution showed the cast duplex steel with high content of Cr, Mo and N. The addition of Ni plays rather insignificant role in the improvement of corrosion resistance of the materials tested.

Open access

B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała, Ł. Boroń and M. Solecka

Abstract

Studies described in this paper relate to common grades of cast corrosion resistant Cr-Ni steel with different matrix. The test materials were subjected to heat treatment, which consisted in the solution annealing at 1060°C followed by cooling in water. The conducted investigations, besides the microstructural characteristics of selected cast steel grades, included the evaluation of hardness, toughness (at a temperature of -40 and +20oC) and type of fracture obtained after breaking the specimens on a Charpy impact testing machine. Based on the results of the measured volume fraction of ferrite, it has been found that the content of this phase in cast austenitic steel is 1.9%, while in the two-phase ferritic-austenitic grades it ranges from 50 to 58%. It has been demonstrated that within the scope of conducted studies, the cast steel of an austenitic structure is characterised by higher impact strength than the two-phase ferritic-austenitic (F-A) grade. The changing appearance of the fractures of the specimens reflected the impact strength values obtained in the tested materials. Fractures of the cast austenitic Cr-Ni steel obtained in these studies were of a ductile character, while fractures of the cast ferritic-austenitic grade were mostly of a mixed character with the predominance of brittle phase and well visible cleavage planes.

Open access

B. Kalandyk, G. Tęcza, R. Zapała and S. Sobula

Abstract

The results of the modification of austenitic matrix in cast high-manganese steel containing 11÷19% Mn with additions of Cr, Ni and Ti were discussed. The introduction of carbide-forming alloying elements to this cast steel leads to the formation in matrix of stable complex carbide phases, which effectively increase the abrasive wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water. The starting material used in tests was a cast Hadfield steel containing 11% Mn and 1.34% C. The results presented in the article show significant improvement in abrasive wear resistance and hardness owing to the structure modification with additions of Cr and Ti.

Open access

G. Kwinta, S. Kara, B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała and P. Pałka

Abstract

The exposed selvedge layers in slabs cast by the continuous process should be free from surface defects, which in most cases appear in the form of cracks on the casting surface and run to its interior. In addition to the parameters of the casting process, the occurrence of such defects depends on the chemical composition of cast steel, on the segregation of surface active elements and formation of the precipitates of carbides, nitrides and other phases. Due to the frequent occurrence of defects in corners of the slabs, non-destructive testing was performed on the mechanically cleaned surfaces of slabs. The test material was low-carbon API(American Petroleum Institute API 5L standard) steel micro alloyed with Nb and Ti designed for the production of pipes to handle gas, oil and other liquid and gaseous fuels. Despite the use of different methods of inspection, i.e. ultrasonic, magnetic particle and penetrant, cracks were not traced in the examined material. Then, from the corners of the examined slabs, specimens were cut out for metallographic examinations. The main purpose of these examinations was to disclose the presence of possible cracks and micro cracks on the surfaces transversal and longitudinal to the direction of casting. At the same time, studies were conducted to establish the number and morphology of non-metallic inclusions in selvedge layers of the slab corners and axis. Additionally, hardness of the slabs was measured. The conducted studies revealed only some minor differences in the slab hardness along its axis (130 ÷ 135 HB) and in selvedge layers (120 ÷ 123 HB).

Open access

B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała, J. Kasińska, M. Wróbel and M. Balicki

The article presents the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast duplex stainless steel type 23Cr-5Mn-2Ni-3Mo. It has been shown that the structure of the tested cast steel is composed of ferrite enriched in Cr, Mo and Si, and austenite enriched in Mn and Ni. In the initial state, at the interface, precipitates rich in Cr and Mo were present. A high carbon content (0.08%C) in this cast steel indicates that probably those were complex carbides of the M23C6 type and/or σ phase. Studies have proved that the solution annealing conducted at 1060°C was not sufficient for their full dissolution, while at the solutioning temperature of 1150°C, the structure of the tested material was composed of ferrite and austenite.

Partial replacement of Ni by two other austenite-forming elements, which are Mn and N, has ensured obtaining mechanical properties comparable to cast duplex 24Cr-5Ni-3Mo steel of the second generation. Basing on the results of static tensile test, a twice higher yield strength was proved to be obtained, compared to the cast austenitic 18Cr-9Ni and 19Cr-11Ni-2Mo steel commonly used in the foundry industry. In addition to the high yield strength (YS = 547 ÷ 572 MPa), the tested cast steel was characterized by the following mechanical properties: UTS = 731 ÷ 750 MPa, EL = 21 ÷ 29.5%, R.A. = 43 ÷ 52%, hardness 256 ÷ 266 HB. Fractures formed in mechanical tests showed ductile-brittle character.