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A. Kavitha, R. Kannan and S. Rajashabala

Abstract

The present paper describes the effect of target power on the properties of Ti thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with (triode mode) and without (diode mode) supported discharge. The traditional diode magnetron sputtering with an addition of a hot filament has been used to sustain the discharge at a lower pressure. The effect of target power (60, 80, 100 and 120 W) on the physical properties of Ti thin films has been studied in diode and triode modes. XRD studies showed that the Ti thin films prepared at a target power up to 100 W in diode mode were amorphous in nature. The Ti thin films exhibited crystalline structure at much lower target power of 80 W with a preferred orientation along (0 0 2) plane. The grain size of Ti thin films prepared in triode mode increased from 64 nm to 80 nm, whereas in diode mode, the grain size increased from 2 nm to 5 nm. EDAX analysis confirmed that the incorporation of reactive gases was lower in triode mode compared to diode mode. The electrical resistivity of Ti thin films deposited in diode mode was found to be 85 µΩ⋅cm (target power 120 W). The electrical resistivity of Ti thin films in triode mode was found to be deceased to 15.2 µΩ⋅cm (target power 120 W).

Open access

V. Kumar, R. Venkatesan and B. Rajan

Abstract

Global CRM software spending was $7.8 billion in 2007 and is projected to reach $8.9 billion in 2008. Further, CRM software sales will touch $13.3 billion by 2012. These software and processes have made it possible for companies to gather and analyze large amounts of data on their existing and prospective customers. This article shows how customer-level data can lead to increased customer profitability through (a) selection of the right customers by using the Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) metric, (b) the nurturing of those right customers and, © re-allocation of resources to the profitable customers. Due to this approach profitable management of individual customers is the basis for growth in firm profitability. A case study will show how IBM used CLV as an indicator of customer profitability and allocated marketing resources based on CLV