The purpose of the paper was to analyse the effect of diverse heat treatment parameters (normalising and tempering) on mechanical characteristics of the material used to develop ϕ508x20 tube bends made of the 10CrMo9-10 steel by application of induction heating. The research conducted included tests of basic mechanical properties as well as low cycle fatigue and creep at the temperature of 500°C. With reference to the results thus obtained, it has been established that there is a relationship between mechanical properties of bends and individual features of their microstructure conditional to the heat treatment parameters. Among other conclusions drawn in the research, it has been found that the main structural factor conditioning the mechanical properties of bends was the grain size. Heat treatment parameters characterised by lower temperature and shorter tempering time triggered changes in the material microstructure, such as increased grain comminution. The effects of the said changes included improvement of strength characteristics (Rm, Rp0,2) as well as increased material durability under conditions of fatigue and creep. Main criterion-specific mechanical properties and geometric features of the bends developed conformed with the relevant requirements of reference standards (PN-EN 10216-2, PN-EN 12952).
M. Cieśla, F. Binczyk, M. Mańka and R. Findziński
The study consisted in assessing the influence of surface and volume modification on the characteristics of high-temperature creep of castings made of waste products of nickel-based superalloys IN 713C and the MAR-247. The results of high-temperature creep tests performed under conditions of two variants of research were analysed. The characteristics of creep according to variant I were obtained on the basis of earlier studies of these alloys with the parameters T=982°C, σ=150MPa . Variant II included carrying out creep tests of alloy IN713C with the parameters T=760°C, σ =400MPa and alloy MAR247 with the parameters: T=982°C, σ=200MPa.Developed creep characteristics were compared with the results of these alloys with the parameters according to variant I of the study. It was observed that the conditions of experiments carried out depending upon the value of the creep test temperature and stress with the creep stability depends on the size of the macrograin (I variant of the studies) or such influence was not observed (II variant of the studies). Stability of samples with coarse structure in variant I of creep tests was significantly higher than the samples with fragmented grain. It was found that the observed stability conditions are dependent on the dominant deformation mechanisms under creep tests carried out - diffusion mechanism in variant I and a dislocation mechanism in variant II of the study. The conditions for the formation and growth of the cracks in the tested materials, including the morphological characteristics of their macro-and microstructure were tested
F. Binczyk, P. Gradoń, M. Mańka and R. Findziński
The paper presents the results of research on the determination of the effect of pouring temperature on the macrostructure of the castings subjected to complex (surface and volume) modification and double filtration. Tested castings were made of post-production scrap (gating system parts) of IN-713C superalloy. Tests included the evaluation of the number of grains per 1 mm2, mean grain surface area, shape factor and tensile strength. Casting temperature below 1470 °C positively influenced the modification effect. The grains were finer and the mechanical properties increased, especially for castings with thicker walls. On the other hand, manufacture of thin walled castings of high quality require pouring temperature above 1480 °C.
F. Binczyk, J. Cwajna, P. Gradoń, M. Mańka and R. Findziński
In current casting technology of cored, thin walled castings, the modifying coating is applied on the surface of wax pattern and, after the removal of the wax, is transferred to inner mould surface. This way the modification leading to grain refinement occur on the surface of the casting. In thin walled castings the modification effect can also be seen on the other (external) side of the casting. Proper reproduction of details in thin walled castings require high pouring temperature which intensify the chemical reactions on the mould – molten metal interface. This may lead to degradation of the surface of the castings. The core modification process is thought to circumvent this problem. The modifying coating is applied to the surface of the core. The degradation of internal surface of the casting is less relevant. The most important factor in this technology is “trough” modification – obtaining fine grained structure on the surface opposite to the surface reproduced by the core.
M. Cieśla, G. Junak, J. Tomczak, R. Findziński and T. Kawała
The paper contains the results of theoretical and experimental research on the tube bending process used in the manufacturing of X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel tubes with dimensions 530 × 90 mm. An innovative technology in which the tube bending is coupled with local induction heating and the results of finite-element numerical modelling of tube bending using Simufact Forming 11.0 software are presented. A change of the geometry in the cross-section of the bend area was subjected to analysis, including the ovalization of the cross-section and the wall thickness in the regions subject to tension and compression. The geometrical features of the bend determined on the basis of numerical calculations were compared with the measurement results obtained in industrial conditions. Basic mechanical properties of the tube in the as-delivered condition and of the fabricated tube bend were determined using tensile, hardness, impact, low-cycle fatigue and creep tests. It was proved that the tube bend made of the X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel, obtained by the proposed technology, meets the requirements of the applicable standards.
F. Binczyk, M. Cieśla, P. Gradoń and R. Findziński
This paper presents the results of measurements of liquid metal fluidity and linear shrinkage of nickel alloy IN-713C in vacuum induction melting furnace Balzers VSG-2. Because of limited volume of the furnace chamber special models for technological trials were designed and constructed to fit in the mould of dimensions 170x95x100mm. Two different designs of test models were proposed: horizontal round rods and modified spiral. Preliminary studies were carried out for alloys Al-Si. Horizontal round rods test was useful for evaluation of fluidity of hypoeutectic silumin, however in case of nickel superalloy the mould cavity was completely filled in each test because of high required pouring temperature. Positive results were obtained from the modified spiral test for all alloys used in the research. Relationship between the linear shrinkage for the test rod and a specific indicator of contraction defined on a spiral was observed.