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Open access

R. Haratym, R. Biernacki, J. Lewiński and J. Kwapisz

Abstract

This research paper will present and analyze selected testing of wax patterns - bending strength test, test of resistance to creep and penetration hardness test. Evaluation of these tests will be carried out in terms of the shape accuracy of wax patterns. Additionally, statistical evaluation will be carried out of relationships between selected parameters of previously mentioned tests. Standard bending tests will be statistically evaluated and compared with two other test methods conducted on corresponding patterns. Particular attention will be given to creep resistance, which is a very useful test method for assessing changes in the shape of complex patterns in the function of time and temperature. At the same time an evaluation of hardness tests of wax patterns will be carried out with usage of appropriate samples or by direct examination of the production patterns.

Open access

R. Haratym, M. Sieczka, R. Biernacki and J. Kwapisz

Abstract

This research presents comprehensive assessment of the precision castings quality made in the Replicast CS process. The evaluation was made based on quality of the surface layer, shape errors and the accuracy of the linear dimensions. Studies were carried out on the modern equipment, among other things a Zeiss Calypso measuring machine and profilometer were used. Obtained results allowed comparing lost wax process models and Replicast CS process.

Open access

R. Biernacki, R. Haratym and J. Kwapisz

Abstract

This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic), recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric power plants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largest producers of sulfur dioxide (SO2).

In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is used to remove SO2 from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practical applications.

Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigate ways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength and permeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and with ceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energy consumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.

After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is no significant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption, decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

Open access

R. Biernacki, R. Haratym, J. Tomasik and J. Kwapisz

Abstract

While analyzing shape accuracy of ferroalloy precision castings in terms of ceramic moulds physical anisotropy, low-alloy steel castings ("cover") and cast iron ("plate") were included. The basic parameters in addition to the product linear shape accuracy are flatness deviations, especially due to the expanded flat surface which is cast plate. For mentioned castings surface micro-geometry analysis was also carried, favoring surface load capacity tp50 for Rmax = 50%. Surface load capacity tp50 obtained for the cast cover was compared with machined product, and casting plate surface was compared with wear part of the conveyor belt. The results were referred to anisotropy of ceramic moulds physical properties, which was evaluated by studying ceramic moulds samples in computer tomography equipment Metrotom 800

Open access

A. Karwiński, R. Haratym and R. Biernacki

Abstract

The paper presents the effect of suction pressure exerted on the liquid AlSi alloy when it is introduced into a ceramic mould made in the investment process and the results compared with data obtained on gravity poured castings. The study used special pattern sets and ceramic moulds made with the alternately applied soluble silicate binder and ethyl silicate. Additionally, self-supported moulds based entirely on the Ekosil binder were used. In the analysis of castings, the following parameters were examined: a linear dimensional accuracy, the state of surface microgeometry and the possibility of metal penetration into a complex ceramic mould, allowing also for the presence of capillary phenomena. In the process of casting with back-pressure, the pressure values of 500 hPa, 600 hPa and 700 hPa were applied in the chamber where the ceramic mould was located, with the temperature of the said mould kept at a level of 150 ± 10°C.

Open access

J. Szantyr, R. Biernacki, P. Flaszyński, P. Dymarski and M. Kraskowski

An experimental and numerical study of the vortices generated by hydrofoils

The article presents the results of the research project concerning the process of formation of the tip vortices shed from hydrofoils of different geometry in different flow conditions. Three hydrofoils resembling the contemporary marine propeller blades have been selected for the study. The experimental part of the project consisted of the LDA measurements of the velocity field in three cross-sections of the vortex generated by the hydrofoils in the cavitation tunnel. The numerical part of the project consisted of calculations of the corresponding velocity field by means of three computer codes and several selected turbulence models. The comparative analysis of the experimental and numerical results, leading to the assessment of the accuracy of the numerical methods, is included.

Open access

P. Flaszyński, J. Szantyr, R. Biernacki, P. Dymarski and M. Kraskowski

A method for the accurate numerical prediction of the tip vortices shed from hydofoils

The possibly accurate numerical prediction of the detailed structure of vortices shed from the tips of hydrofoils is an important element of the design process of marine propellers. The concentrated tip vortices are responsible for the propeller cavitation erosion and acoustic emission. The purpose of the project described in this paper was to develop the numerical method for prediction of the tip vortex structure. In the course of the project the numerical calculations were confronted with the results of experimental measurements. This led to creation of the specific method of construction of the computational grid and to selection of the optimum turbulence model. As a result the reliable method for the accurate numerical prediction of the concentrated tip vortices for different hydrofoil geometry and flow conditions has been developed and validated. This method enables elimination of the unfavourable phenomena related to the tip vortices in the course of the propeller design calculations.

Open access

A. Karwiński, R. Haratym, R. Biernacki and A. Soroczyński

Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the applicability of the Replicast CS process as an alternative to the investment casting process, considered in terms of the dimensional accuracy of castings. Ceramic shell moulds were based on the Ekosil binder and a wide range of ceramic materials, such as crystalline quartz, fused silica, aluminosilicates and zirconium silicate. The linear dimensions were measured with a Zeiss UMC 550 machine that allowed reducing to minimum the measurement uncertainty

Open access

R. Biernacki, R. Haratym, A. Bałkowiec, P. Wawulska-Marek, H. Matysiak, J. Zdunek and K. J. Kurzydłowski

Abstract

The study investigated the properties of selected certified mixtures used to make wax patterns for the production of precision castings for the aerospace industry. In addition, an assessment of the recycled mixtures consisting of certified wax materials recovered during autoclaving was carried out. Hardness was tested via a proposed method based on penetration, creep related deformation, bending strength and linear contraction. The hardness was studied on laboratory specimens and patterns made with the use of injection molding equipment. For these patterns, linear contraction was estimated at variable pressure and for different temperature injection parameters. Deformations connected with creep and resistance were evaluated on cylindrical specimens. Differences in creep resistance in relation to the hardness were observed depending on the type of pattern mixtures. Recycled mixture has a greater resistance and smaller linear contraction than certified mixtures used for making sprue, raisers and other parts of filler system.