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Hong Zang, Dong Ji, Qing Shao, Guang-de Zhou, Deng Pan, Shao-jie Xin, Jing-min Zhao and Guo-feng Chen


Objective The cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) protein plays a regulatory role in the induction of cell death in tumor cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of the expression of CAS protein with HBV infection in the development of HCC.

Methods The expression level of CAS was measured with immunohistochemistry. The occurrence of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in HCC were concurrently examined with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively.

Results The results showed that the CAS protein was detected in 86% (43/50), 70% (7/10), 15% (3/20) and none (0/20) of livers from patients with HCC, cholangiocarcinoma, cirrhosis and hepatitis, respectively. Furthermore, the level of CAS protein was higher in poorly differentiated tumors than moderately or well differentiated HCC. Interestingly, the CAS was stained significantly stronger in HBV-infected HCC than in non-HBV infected tissues (P < 0.01).

Conclusions The expression of CAS is facilitated by HBV infection in HCC, suggesting that CAS might be a prognostic marker and a putative therapeutic target for HCC.

Open access

Yan-Ming Wang, Wen-Zheng Wang, Zhen-Lu Shao, De-Ming Wang and Guo-Qing Shi


Coal spontaneous combustion is an extremely complicated physical and chemical changing process. In order to improve the indicator gases detection technology and coal spontaneous combustion monitoring, a novel forecast method for toxic gases emission from coal oxidation at low temperature is presented in this paper. The experiment system is setup combined with frequency-domain terahertz technology and coal temperature programming device. The concentration curves of carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide gases from coal spontaneous combustion are estimated according to molecule terahertz spectra. The influences of coal rank and oxygen supply on coal spontaneous combustion characteristics are discussed. Both carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide gases absorption spectra show the characteristic equi-spaced absorption peaks. Results demonstrate that under the condition of lean oxygen, there exists a critical oxygen concentration in the process of coal oxidation at low temperature. Comparing with Fourier infrared spectrum testing, the presented method is highly accurate and more sensitive, especially suitable for early-stage monitoring of the indicator gases produced by coal spontaneous combustion.

Open access

Yue-qiu Zhang, Shao-xia Xu, Sai-nan Bian, Li-fan Zhang, Yao Zhang, Wei-hong Zhang, Ying-chun Xu and Xiao-qing Liu


Objective To investigate the infection rate of hepatitis C virus among the ambulatory patients and in-patients of a tertiary teaching hospital, and study the demographic factors related to the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection.

Methods All patients tested for hepatitis C virus antibody from July 2008 to July 2009 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled in this cross-sectional analysis. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was compared according to age, gender, and departments, respectively. Among patients with positive serology hepatitis C virus marker, the positivity of hepatitis C virus RNA was analysed.

Results Among 29 896 subjects included, the hepatitis C virus antibody of 494 patients were positive (1.7%). When patients were divided into 9 age groups, the age specific prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody were 0.2%, 1.7%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.9%,2.6%, 2.4% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody in non-surgical department and surgical department was 3% and 1%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody of males was higher than that of the females. Total of 194 patients with positive hepatitis C virus antibody were tested for hepatitis C virus RNA, the RNA level of 113 patients (58.2%) were higher than the low detection limit.

Conclusions The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody was relatively high among patients of general tertiary hospital. Age group of 60-69, males and patients in non-surgical departments were factors associated with high rate of hepatitis C virus infection.

Open access

Yi-hai Gu, Xiao Zhu, Jing-yun Li, Jun Zhang, Qing-yuan Zhou, Yue Ma, Chang-qin Hu, Shao-hong Jin and Sheng-hui Cui


Objective To identify the risk factors for imipenem resistance development and transmission of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

Methods Thirty-seven imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from patients in absence of carbapenem treatment were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and carbapenem resistant mechanism analysis.

Results Before the collection of imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, the average time of patients treated with more than one antimicrobial (20.0 ± 9.5 days, n = 16) was significantly longer than those treated with only one antimicrobial (12.6 ± 4.4 days, n = 21; t-test, Welch, t = -2.9004, P < 0.01). And 32 isolates showed resistance to more than 3 classes of antimicrobials. Six PFGE clusters were identified and 26 isolates were grouped into one dominant cluster (C2). An ISpa1328 sequence insertion in oprD was detected in 33 isolates and the function of efflux was observed in all 37 isolates in the presence of a wide spectrum efflux inhibitor.

Conclusions Our data demonstrated that exposure to non-carbapenem drug classes, especially fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, may be important risk factors for the spread of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.