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Open access

Bo Hu, Yu-kun Jin, Wan-jiang Gu, Jun Liu, Hua-qin Qin, Chong Chen and Ying-yu Wang

Open access

Guang-Hua Qin, Yue-Zhong Jiang and Yu-Ling Qiao

Abstract

As one of the fast-growing tree species, hybrid poplar (Populus ssp.) has been widely planted in Shandong Province, China. While poplar tree breeding program in the past few decades focused on the development of poplar clones with fast growth rate and disease resistance, little attention was paid to the tree traits of these clones in relation to industrial uses i.e. pulpwood as well as veneer. In this paper, growth performance of hybrid poplar clones from backcrossedprogenies obtained from cross fertilization within the Poplar Aigeiros Section was evaluated and stem traits as well as wood properties in relation to industrial use of some selected clones were assessed. Of the 40 hybrid poplar clones tested in the study, A50 and B69 were prominent in growth rate at three trial sites in Shandong Province, China.Wood properties in relation to industrial uses of the two clones were also better than or comparable to the control clone. It was concluded that A50 is more suitable for pulpwood production while B69 is suitable for a wide range of high value added application such as veneer and plywood. Further research is needed to evaluate the changes of some tree traits in relation to industrial raw materials through time.

Open access

Qiu Jue Wu, Qin Yu Wang, Tian Wang and Yan Min Zhou

Abstract

The effects of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) were evaluated in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a 21-d feeding trial. A total of 288 one-day-old chickens were allocated into three treatment groups: control, NCLI (2%) and MCLI (2%). Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with either 0.9% NaCl solution or LPS (250 μg/kg body weight, orally administered) at 16, 18 and 21 d of age. Before the LPS challenge, no dietary effect on bird growth performance was found (P>0.05). When LPS was orally administered, no significant changes in growth performance of broilers was found (P>0.05). However, small intestinal morphology and development, malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the jejunual and ileal mucosa, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the ileal mucosa were significantly affected (P<0.05). Supplementation with NCLI and MCLI significantly decreased the MDA contents of the jejunual and ileal mucosa and improved the SOD activity of the ileal mucosa and the development of the small intestine compared with the control group (P<0.05). The results indicated that NCLI and MCLI additions in feed had protective effects on the gut health of broilers against LPS challenge.

Open access

Qin Zhou, Yu-feng Gao, Xiao-miao Zhao, Fa-ming Pan and Xu Li

Abstract

Objective To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a Chinese Han population.

Methods Total of 501 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 301 controls with selflimiting HBV infection were studied. Three tag SNPs in the IL-4 gene (rs2227284G/T, rs2243283C/G and rs2243288A/G) were genotyped by the Multiplex snapshot technique. The genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and analyzed.

Results The three SNPs showed no significant genotype/allele associations with chronic HBV infection. Overall allele P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.655, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.070 (0.793-1.445); rs2243283, P = 0.849, OR (95% CI) = 0.976 (0.758-1.257); rs2243288, P = 0.659, OR (95% CI) = 1.060 (0.818-1.375). Overall genotype P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.771; rs2243283, P = 0.571; rs2243288, P = 0.902. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with chronic HBV infection and controls. Haplotypes generated by these three SNPs also had no significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusions The three tag SNPs of IL-4 were not associated with the outcome of HBV infection in the Han Chinese population.

Open access

Yong Qin, Yuyan Luo, Jingru Lu, Lu Yin and Xinran Yu

Abstract

Resources and the environment have always been the two important natural factors that affect people’s lives. In recent years, the problem of resources and the environment has increasingly become an important issue that people are concerned about. This study discusses the use and consumption of energy and the impact of environmental pollution on economic development under sustainable economic development. This paper takes Panzhihua as an example to analyze the impact of energy and environment on the economy, and proposes solutions to improve economic development, which is of strategic significance for the future development of Panzhihua City. In this paper, the system dynamics method is used to decompose the Panzhihua large-scale system into three parts and carry out modeling and simulation to explore the connection between them. Based on the data from 2007 to 2015 in Panzhihua City, simulations have been carried out to obtain qualitative and quantitative analysis of certain simulation curves of the energy-environment-economy 3E system (hereinafter referred to as 3E system) from 2007 to 2030 to ascertain the future development pattern of Panzhihua City. The results show that when the 3E system is a coordinated development model, economic development and environmental protection have a good development trend at the same time, which is applicable to the future development of Panzhihua City. This model has good reference suggestions and application prospects for urban development. We want to give Panzhihua City the following suggestions: (1) Continue to focus on the secondary industry and increase competitiveness. (2) Increase the investment funds in environmental protection and achieve sustainable economic development.

Open access

Yu Qin, Santhosh Puthiyakunnon, Yiduo Zhang, Xianbo Wu, Swapna Boddu, Binde Luo and Hongying Fan

Abstract

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is well known for many foodborne outbreaks that lead to fatal infections in human being worldwide. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for detection of EHEC O157:H7 from ground beef using a method that combined immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The EHEC O157:H7 cells were separated with Dynabeads coated with anti- EHEC O157:H7 after a short enrichment for 4 h. Then, EHEC O157:H7 was identified by LAMP assay for amplifying and detecting the rfbE gene, which is highly conserved in all EHEC O157:H7 strains and exhibits strain-specifi c gene expression. The LAMP method results analyzed with real time turbidity measurements showed a high specificity and sensitivity, with a positive detection rate of amplifi cation of EHEC O157:H7 DNA diluted to a minimum equivalent concentration of 1.8 × 101 CFU/mL, which was 10 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR assay. The IMS followed with LAMP could capture and detect a bacterial concentration as low as 3×101 CFU/mL from the meat samples, which was close to the sensitivity of LAMP assay with pure culture. IMS combined with realistic LAMP method is a simple, rapid, highly specific gene amplifi cation technology that is suitable for implementing as a screening assay in basic laboratory and field test for detecting food contamination.

Open access

Yi-sheng Zhong, Min-hong Xiang, Wen Ye, Ping Huang, Yu Cheng and You-qin Jiang

Abstract

Background: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are protected in rats with acute elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) by Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) hand-mazz (EBHM). However, it is unclear whether EBHM has neuroprotective effect on RGCs in animal with chronic elevated IOP.

Objective: Investigate the protective effect of EBHM extract on RGCs in rabbits with chronic elevated IOP.

Methods: Unilateral chronic elevated IOP was produced in rabbits by repeated injection of 2% methylcellulose into the anterior chamber. Secondary degeneration was measured with and without EBHM extract treatment for 60 days. At 60 days, the cells density of the RGCs layer, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and the optic nerve axons were observed and analyzed using an image analysis system. The ultrastructural changes of RGCs and optic nerve axons were observed using transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Compared with their contralateral control eyes with normal IOP, in the retinas of 3-4 mm from the optic disc, the cells density of the RGCs layer in the eyes with chronic elevated IOP was 23.2±6.5 cells (n = 6) and 36.0±8.9 cells (n = 10) per three 400x fields at 60 days in untreated and EBHM-treated group, respectively. The RNFL thickness in eyes with chronic elevated IOP was 3.4±0.4 μm (n = 6) and 5.0±1.0 μm (n = 10) at 60 days in untreated and EBHM-treated group, respectively. The axons number per 15057.8 μm2 in eyes with chronic elevated IOP was 370.4±41.0 (n = 6) and 439.0±50.8 (n = 10) at 60 days in untreated and EBHM-treated group, respectively. The number of the organelles in RGCs plasm appeared decreased and mitochondrion vacuolated in the elevated IOP eyes of EBHM-treated group, while some dispersive mitochondrion and rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome still existed in the RGCs plasm. The myelin sheath plates condensed and degenerated, and the microfilaments and microtubules decreased or disappeared in the elevated IOP eyes, but the axons degeneration in the chronic elevated IOP with EBHM treatment was less than that in the chronic elevated IOP without treatment.

Conclusion: EBHM extract provided a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in rabbits with chronic elevated IOP.

Open access

Min Han, Qin Yu, Xuerong Liu, Fuqiang Hu and Hong Yuan

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to investigate a novel aqueous dispersion (Eudragit® L100-55) f or e nteric c oating o f drugs. Three different casting solutions, Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersion, Eudragit® L 100-55 o rganic s olution, and Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion, were used to prepare free films by the casting method. Drug-loaded pellets, prepared by the extrusion-spheronization method, were coated with one of these three coating solutions using the fluidized-bed spray coating technology. Properties of the free films were thoroughly investigated. Films formed by Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersions showed similar properties to those formed by Eudragit® L100-55 organic solution regarding thermodynamic properties, moisture permeability, solubility and acid tolerance ability. Furthermore, the performance of the novel film was better than that formed by Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion. Among the three enteric coating solutions, Eudragit® L100- 55 aqueous dispersion will be a promising aqueous dispersion for enteric coating and can be used in the development of enteric-coated preparations.